Tag Archives: release

curl 7.65.2 fixes even more

Six weeks after our previous bug-fix release, we ship a second release in a row with nothing but bug-fixes. We call it 7.65.2. We decided to go through this full release cycle with a focus on fixing bugs (and not merge any new features) since even after 7.65.1 shipped as a bug-fix only release we still seemed to get reports indicating problems we wanted fixed once and for all.

Download curl from curl.haxx.se as always!

Also, I personally had a vacation already planned to happen during this period (and I did) so it worked out pretty good to take this cycle as a slightly calmer one.

Of the numbers below, we can especially celebrate that we’ve now received code commits by more than 700 persons!

Numbers

the 183rd release
0 changes
42 days (total: 7,789)

76 bug fixes (total: 5,259)
113 commits (total: 24,500)
0 new public libcurl function (total: 80)
0 new curl_easy_setopt() option (total: 267)

0 new curl command line option (total: 221)
46 contributors, 25 new (total: 1,990)
30 authors, 19 new (total: 706)
1 security fix (total: 90)
200 USD paid in Bug Bounties

Security

Since the previous release we’ve shipped a security fix. It was special in the way that it wasn’t actually a bug in the curl source code, but in the build procedure for how we made curl builds for Windows. For this report, we paid out a 200 USD bug bounty!

Bug-fixes of interest

As usual I’ve carved out a list with some of the bugs since the previous release that I find interesting and that could warrant a little extra highlighting. Check the full changelog on the curl site.

bindlocal: detect and avoid IP version mismatches in bind

It turned out you could ask curl to connect to a IPv4 site and if you then asked it to bind to an interface in the local end, it could actually bind to an ipv6 address (or vice versa) and then cause havok and fail. Now we make sure to stick to the same IP version for both!

configure: more –disable switches to toggle off individual features

As part of the recent tiny-curl effort, more parts of curl can be disabled in the build and now all of them can be controlled by options to the configure script. We also now have a test that verifies that all the disabled-defines are indeed possible to set with configure!

(A future version could certainly get a better UI/way to configure which parts to enable/disable!)

http2: call done_sending on end of upload

Turned out a very small upload over HTTP/2 could sometimes end up not getting the “upload done” flag set and it would then just linger around or eventually cause a time-out…

libcurl: Restrict redirect schemes to HTTP(S), and FTP(S)

As a stronger safety-precaution, we’ve now made the default set of protocols that are accepted to redirect to much smaller than before. The set of protocols are still settable by applications using the CURLOPT_REDIR_PROTOCOLS option.

multi: enable multiplexing by default (again)

Embarrassingly enough this default was accidentally switched off in 7.65.0 but now we’re back to enabling multiplexing by default for multi interface uses.

multi: fix the transfer hashes in the socket hash entries

The handling of multiple transfers on the same socket was flawed and previous attempts to fix them were incorrect or simply partial. Now we have an improved system and in fact we now store a separate connection hash table for each internal separate socket object.

openssl: fix pubkey/signature algorithm detection in certinfo

The CURLINFO_CERTINFO option broke with OpenSSL 1.1.0+, but now we have finally caught up with the necessary API changes and it should now work again just as well independent of which version you build curl to use!

runtests: keep logfiles around by default

Previously, when you run curl’s test suite, it automatically deleted the log files on success and you had to use runtests.pl -k to prevent it from doing this. Starting now, it will erase the log files on start and not on exit so they will now always be kept on exit no matter how the tests run. Just a convenience thing.

runtests: report single test time + total duration

The output from runtests.pl when it runs each test, one by one, will now include timing information about each individual test. How long each test took and how long time it has spent on the tests so far. This will help us detect if specific tests suddenly takes a very long time and helps us see how they perform in the remote CI build farms etc.

Next?

I truly think we’ve now caught up with the worst problems and can now allow features to get merged again. We have some fun ones in the pipe that I can’t wait to put in the hands of users out there…

7.65.1 patched up and ready to go

(download it from curl.haxx.se of course!)

Whatever we do and whatever we try, no matter how hard we try to test, debug, review and do CI builds it does not change the eternal truth:

Nothing gets tested properly until released.

We worked hard on fixing bugs in the weeks before we shipped curl 7.65.0. We really did. Yet, several annoying glitches managed to creep in, remain unnoticed and cause problems to users when they first eagerly tried out the new release. Those were glitches that none in the development team had experienced or discovered but only took a few hours for users to detect and report.

The initial bad sign was that it didn’t even take a full hour from the release announcement until the first bug on 7.65.0 was reported. And it didn’t stop with that issue. We obviously had a whole handful of small bugs that caused friction to users who just wanted to get the latest curl to play with. The bugs were significant and notable enough that I quickly decided we should patch them up and release an update that has them fixed: 7.65.1. So here it is!

This patch release even got delayed. Just the day before the release we started seeing weird crashes in one of the CI builds on macOS and they still remained on the morning of the release. That made me take the unusual call to postpone the release until we better understood what was going on. That’s the reason why this comes 14 days after 7.65.0 instead of a mere 7 days.

Numbers

the 182nd release
0 changes
14 days (total: 7,747)

35 bug fixes (total: 5,183)
61 commits (total: 24,387)
0 new public libcurl function (total: 80)
0 new curl_easy_setopt() option (total: 267)

0 new curl command line option (total: 221)
27 contributors, 12 new (total: 1,965)
16 authors, 6 new (total: 687)
0 security fixes (total: 89)
0 USD paid in Bug Bounties

Bug-fixes

Let me highlight some of the fixes that went this during this very brief release cycle.

build correctly with OpenSSL without MD4

This was the initial bug report, reported within an hour from the release announcement of 7.65.0. If you built and installed OpenSSL with MD4 support disabled, building curl with that library failed. This was a regression since curl already supported this and due to us not having this build combination in our CI builds we missed it… Now it should work again!

CURLOPT_LOW_SPEED_* repaired

In my work that introduces more ways to disable specific features in curl so that tiny-curl would be as small as possible, I accidentally broke this feature (two libcurl options that allow a user to stop a transfer that goes below a certain transfer speed threshold during a given time). I had added a way to disable the internal progress meter functionality, but obviously not done a good enough job!

The breakage proved we don’t have proper tests for this functionality. I reverted the commit immediately to bring back the feature, and when now I go back to fix this and land a better fix soon, I now also know that I need to add tests to verify.

multi: track users of a socket better

Not too long ago I found and fixed a pretty serious flaw in curl’s HTTP/2 code which made it deal with multiplexed transfers over the same single connection in a manner that was far from ideal. When fixed, it made curl do HTTP/2 better in some circumstances.

This improvement ended up proving itself to have a few flaws. Especially when the connection is closed when multiple streams are done over it. This bug-fix now makes curl closing down such transfers in a better and cleaner way with fewer “loose ends”.

parse_proxy: use the IPv6 zone id if given

One more zone id fix that I didn’t get around to land in 7.65.0 has now landed: specifying a proxy with a URL that includes an IPv6 numerical address and a zone id – now works.

connection “bundles” on same host but different ports

Internally, libcurl collects connections to a host + port combination in a “bundle” (that’s just a term used for this concept internally). It does this to count number of connections to this combination and enforce limits etc. It is only used a bit for controlling when multiplexing can be done or not on this host.

Due to a regression, probably added already back in 7.62.0, this logic always used the default port for the protocol instead of the actual port number used in the given URL! An application that for example did parallel HTTP transfers to the hostname “example.org” on both port 80 and port 81, and used HTTP/1 on one of the ports and HTTP/2 on the other would be totally mixed up by curl and cause transfer failures.

But not anymore!

Coming up

This patch release was not planned. We will give this release a few days to stew and evaluate the situation. If we keep getting small or big bugs reported, we might not open the feature window at all in this release cycle and instead just fix bugs.

Ideally however, we’ve now fixed the most pressing ones and we can now move on and follow our regular development process. Even if we have, the feature window for next release will be open during a shorter period than normal.

curl 7.65.0 dances in

After another eight week cycle was been completed, curl shipped a new release into the world. 7.65.0 brings some news and some security fixes but is primarily yet again a set of bug-fixes bundled up. Remember 7.64.1?

As always, download it straight from curl.haxx.se!

One fun detail on this release: we have 500 less lines of source code in the lib/ directory compared to the previous release!

Things that happened in curl since last release:

Numbers

the 181st release
3 changes
56 days (total: 7,733)

119 bug fixes (total: 5,148)
215 commits (total: 24,326)
0 new public libcurl function (total: 80)
1 new curl_easy_setopt() option (total: 267)

0 new curl command line option (total: 221)
50 contributors, 24 new (total: 1,953)
32 authors, 12 new (total: 681)
2 security fixes (total: 89)
350 USD paid in Bug Bounties

News

  1. libcurl has deprecated support for the global DNS cache.
  2. Pipelining support is now completely removed from curl.
  3. CURLOPT_MAXAGE_CONN is a new option that controls how long to keep a live connection in the connection cache for reuse.

Security

This release comes with fixes for two separate security problems. Both rated low risk. Both reported via the new bug bounty program.

CVE-2019-5435 is an issue in the recently introduced URL parsing API. It is only a problem in 32 bit architectures and only if an application can be told to pass in ridiculously long (> 2GB) strings to libcurl. This bug is similar in nature to a few other bugs libcurl has had in the past, and to once and for all combat this kind of flaw libcurl now (in 7.65.0 and forward) has a “maximum string length” limit for strings that you can pass to it using its APIs. The maximum size is 8MB. (The reporter was awarded 150 USD for this find.)

CVE-2019-5436 is a problem in the TFTP code. If an application decides to uses a smaller “blksize” than 504 (default is 512), curl would overflow a buffer allocated on the heap with data received from the server. Luckily, very few people actually download data from unknown or even remote TFTP servers. Secondly, asking for a blksize smaller than 512 is rather pointless and also very rare: the primary point in changing that size is to enlarge it. (The reporter was awarded 200 USD for this find.)

Bug-fixes

Over one hundred bug-fixes landed in this release, but some of my favorites from release cycle include…

mark connection for close on TLS close_notify

close_notify is a message in the TLS protocol that means that this connection is about to close. In most circumstances that message doesn’t actually provide information to curl that is needed, but in the case the connection is closed prematurely, understanding that this message preceded the closure helps curl act appropriately. This change was done for the OpenSSL backend only as that’s where we got the bug reported and worked on it this time, but I think we might have reasons to do the same for other backends going forward!

show port in the verbose “Trying …” message

The verbose message that says “Trying 12.34.56.78…” means that curl has sent started a TCP connect attempt to that IP address. This message has now been modified to also include the target port number so when using -v with curl 7.65.0, connecting to that same host for HTTPS will instead say “Trying 12.34.56.78:443…”.

To aid debugging really. I think it gives more information faster at a place you’re already looking.

new SOCKS 4+5 test server

The test suite got a brand new SOCKS server! Previously, all SOCKS tests for both version 4 and version 5 were done by firing up ssh (typically openssh). That method was decent but made it hard to do a range of tests for bad behavior, bad protocol replies and similar. With the new custom test server, we can basically add whatever test we want and we’ve already extended the SOCKS testing to cover more code and use cases than previously.

SOCKS5 user name and passwords must be shorter than 256

curl allows user names and passwords provided in URLs and as separate options to be more or less unrestricted in size and that include if the credentials are used for SOCKS5 authentication – totally ignoring the fact that the protocol SOCKS5 has a maximum size of 255 for the fields. Starting now, curl will return an error if the credentials for SOCKS5 are too long.

Warn if curl and libcurl versions do not match

The command line tool and the library are independent and separable, as in you can run one version of the curl tool with another version of the libcurl library. The libcurl API is solid enough to allow it and the tool is independent enough to not restrict it further.

We always release curl the command line tool and libcurl the library together, using the same version number – with the code for both shipped in the same single file.

There should rarely be a good reason to actually run curl and libcurl with different versions. Starting now, curl will show a little warning if this is detected as we have learned that this is almost always a sign of an installation or setup mistake. Hopefully this message will aid people to detect the mistake earlier and easier.

Better handling of “–no-” prefixed options

curl’s command line parser allows users to switch off boolean options by prefixing them with dash dash no dash. For example we can switch off compressed responses by using “–no-compression” since there regular option “–compression” switches it on.

It turned out we stripped the “–no-” thing no regarding if the option was boolean or not and presumed the logic to handle it – which it didn’t. So users could actually pass a proxy string to curl with the regular option “–proxy” as well as “–no-proxy”. The latter of course not making much sense and was just due to an oversight.

In 7.65.0, only actual boolean command line options can be used with “–no-“. Trying it on other options will cause curl to report error for it.

Add CURLUPART_ZONEID to the URL API

Remember when we added a new URL parsing API to libcurl back in 7.62.0? It wasn’t even a year ago! When we did this, we also changed the internals to use the same code. It turned out we caused a regression when we parsed numerical IPv6 addresses that provide the zone ID within the string. Like this: “https://[ffe80::1%25eth0]/index.html”

Starting in this release, you can both set and get the zone ID in a URL using the API, but of course setting it doesn’t do anything unless the host is a numeric IPv6 address.

parse proxy with the URL parser API

We removed the separate proxy string parsing logic and instead switched that over to more appropriately use the generic URL parser for this purpose as well. This move reduced the code size, made the code simpler and makes sure we have a unified handling of URLs! Everyone is happy!

longer URL schemes

I naively wrote the URL parser to handle scheme names as long as the longest scheme we support in curl: 8 bytes. But since the parser can also be asked to parse URLs with non-supported schemes, that limit was a bit too harsh. I did a quick research, learned that the longest currently registered URI scheme is 36 characters (“microsoft.windows.camera.multipicker”). Starting in this release , curl accepts URL schemes up to 40 bytes long.

Coming up next

There’s several things brewing in the background that might be ready to show in next release. Parallel transfers in the curl tool and deprecating PolarSSL support seem likely to happen for example. Less likely for this release, but still being worked on slowly, is HTTP/3 support.

We’re also likely to get a bunch of changes and fine features we haven’t even thought about from our awesome contributors. In eight weeks I hope to write another one of these blog posts explaining what went into that release…

curl goes 180

The 180th public curl release is a patch release: 7.64.1. There’s been 49 days since 7.64.0 shipped. The first release since our 21st birthday last week. (Full changelog.)

Numbers

the 180th release
2 changes
49 days (total: 7,677)

116 bug fixes (total: 5,029)
184 commits (total: 24,111)
0 new public libcurl functions (total: 80)
2 new curl_easy_setopt() options (total: 267)

1 new curl command line option (total: 221)
49 contributors, 25 new (total: 1,929)
25 authors, 10 new (total: 669)
0 security fixes (total: 87)

News!

This is a patch release but we still managed to introduce some fun news in this version. We ship brand new alt-svc support which we encourage keen and curious users to enable in their builds and test out. We strongly discourage anyone from using that feature in production as we reserve ourselves the right to change it before removing the EXPERIMENTAL label. As mentioned in the blog post linked above, alt-svc is the official way to bootstrap into HTTP/3 so this is a fundamental stepping stone for supporting that protocol version in a future curl.

We also introduced brand new support for the Amiga-specific TLS backend AmiSSL, which is a port of OpenSSL to that platform.

Bug-fixes

With over a hundred bug-fixes landed in this period there are a lot to choose from, but some of the most most fun and important ones from my point of view include the following.

connection check crash

This was a rather bad regression that occasionally caused crashes when libcurl would scan its connection cache for a live connection to reuse. Most likely to trigger with the Schannel backend.

connection sharing crash

The example source code that uses a shared connection cache among many threads was another crash regression. It turned out a thread could accidentally get hold of a connection already in private use by another thread…

“Expire in…” logs removed

Having the harmless but annoying text there was a mistake to begin with. It was a debug-only line that accidentally was pushed and not discovered in time. It’s history now.

curl -M manual removed

The tutorial-like manual piece that was previously included in the -M (or –manual) built-in command documentation, is no longer included. The output shown is now just the curl.1 man page. The reason for this is that the tutorial has gone a bit stale and there is now better updated and better explained documentation elsewhere. Primarily perhaps in everything curl. The online version of that document will eventually also be removed.

TLS terminology cleanups

We now refer to the Windows TLS backend as “Schannel” and the Apple macOS one as “Secure Transport” in all curl code and documentation. Those are the official names and those are the names people in general know them as. No more use of the former names that sometimes made people confused.

Shaving off bytes and mallocs

We rearranged the layout of a few structs and changed to using bitfields instead of booleans and more. This way, we managed to shrink two of the primary internal structs by 5% and 11% with no functionality change or loss.

Similarly, we removed a few mallocs, even in the common code path, so now the number of allocs for my regular test download of 4GB data over a localhost HTTP server claims fewer allocs than ever before.

Next?

We estimate that there will be a 7.65.0 release to ship 56 days from now. Then we will remove some deprecated features, perhaps add something new and quite surely fix a whole bunch of more bugs. Who know what fun we will come up with at curl up this coming weekend?

Keep reporting. Keep posting pull-requests. We love them and you!

Brand new sticker shipment for curl up from our beloved sticker sponsor!


curl 7.64.0 – like there’s no tomorrow

I know, has there been eight weeks since the previous release already? But yes it has – I double-checked! And then as the laws of nature dictates, there has been yet another fresh curl version released out into the wild.

Numbers

the 179th release
5 changes
56 days (total: 7,628)

76 bug fixes (total: 4,913)
128 commits (total: 23,927)
0 new public libcurl functions (total: 80)
3 new curl_easy_setopt() options (total: 265)

1 new curl command line option (total: 220)
56 contributors, 29 new (total: 1,904)
32 authors, 13 new (total: 658)
  3 security fixes (total: 87)

Security fixes

This release we have no less than three different security related fixes. I’ll describe them briefly here, but for the finer details I advice you to read the dedicated pages and documentation we’ve written for each one of them.

CVE-2018-16890 is a bug where the existing range check in the NTLM code is wrong, which allows a malicious or broken NTLM server to send a header to curl that will make it read outside a buffer and possibly crash or otherwise misbehave.

CVE-2019-3822 is related to the previous but with much worse potential effects. Another bad range check actually allows a sneaky NTLMv2 server to be able to send back crafted contents that can overflow a local stack based buffer. This is potentially in the worst case a remote code execution risk. I think this might be the worst security issue found in curl in a long time. A small comfort is that by disabling NTLM, you will avoid it until patched.

CVE-2019-3823 is a potential read out of bounds of a heap based buffer in the SMTP code. It is fairly hard to trigger and it will mostly cause a crash when it does.

Changes

  1. curl now supports Mike West’s cookie update known as draft-ietf-httpbis-cookie-alone. It basically means that cookies that are set as “secure” has to be set over HTTPS to be allow to override a previous secure cookie. Safer cookies.
  2. The –resolve option as well as CURLOPT_RESOLVE now support specifying a wildcard as port number.
  3. libcurl can now send trailing headers in chunked uploads using the new options.
  4. curl now offers options to enable HTTP/0.9 responses, The default is still enabled, but the plan is to deprecate that and in 6 months time switch over the to default to off.
  5. curl now uses higher resolution timer accuracy on windows.

Bug-fixes

Check out the full change log to see the whole list. Here are some of the bug fixes I consider to be most noteworthy:

  • We re-implemented the code coverage support for autotools builds due to a license problem. It turned out the previously used macro was GPLv2 licensed in an unusual way for autoconf macros.
  • We make sure –xattr never stores URLs with credentials, following the security problem reported on a related tool. Not considered a security problem since this is actually what the user asked for, but still done like this for added safety.
  • With -J, curl should not be allowed to append to the file. It could lead to curl appending to a file that was in the download directory since before.
  • –tls-max didn’t work correctly on macOS when built to use Secure Transport.
  • A couple of improvements in the libssh-powered SSH backend.
  • Adjusted the build for OpenSSL 3.0.0 (the coming future version).
  • We no longer refer to Schannel as “winssl” anywhere. winssl is dead. Long live Schannel!
  • When built with mbedTLS, ignore SIGPIPE accordingly!
  • Test cases were adjusted and verified to work fine up until February 2037.
  • We fixed several parsing errors in the URL parser, mostly related to IPv6 addresses. Regressions introduced in 7.62.0.

Next

The next release cycle will be one week shorter and we expect to ship next release on March 27 – just immediately after curl turns 22 years old. There are already several changes in the pipe so we expect that to become 7.65.0.

We love your help and support! File bugs you experience or see, submit pull requests for the features or corrections you work on!

7.63.0 – another step down the endless path

This curl release was developed and put together over a period of six weeks (two weeks less than usual). This was done to accommodate to my personal traveling plans – and to avoid doing a release too close to Christmas in case we would ship any security fixes, but ironically, we have no security advisories this time!

Numbers

the 178th release
3 changes
42 days (total: 7,572)

79 bug fixes (total: 4,837)
122 commits (total: 23,799)
0 new public libcurl functions (total: 80)
1 new curl_easy_setopt() options (total: 262)

0 new curl command line option (total: 219)
51 contributors, 21 new (total: 1,829)
31 authors, 14 new (total: 646)
  0 security fixes (total: 84)

Changes

With the new CURLOPT_CURLU option, an application can now  pass in an already parsed URL to libcurl instead of a string.

When using libcurl’s URL API, introduced in 7.62.0, the result is held in a “handle” and that handle is what now can be passed straight into libcurl when setting up a transfer.

In the command line tool, the –write-out option got the ability to optionally redirect its output to stderr. Previously it was always a given file or stdout but many people found that a bit limiting.

Interesting bug-fixes

Weirdly enough we found and fixed a few cookie related bugs this time. I say “weirdly” because you’d think this is functionality that’s been around for a long time and should’ve been battle tested and hardened quite a lot already. As usual, I’m only covering some bugs here. The full list is in the changelog!

Cookie saving –  One cookie bug that we fixed was related to libcurl not saving a cookie jar when no cookies are kept in memory (any more). This turned out to be a changed behavior due to us doing more aggressive expiry of old cookies since a while back, and one user had a use case where they would load cookies from a cookie jar and then expect that the cookies would update and write to the jar again, overwriting the old one – although when no cookies were left internally it didn’t touch the file and the application thus reread the old cookies again on the next invoke. Since this was subtly changed behavior, libcurl will now save an empty jar in this situation to make sure such apps will note the blank jar.

Cookie expiry – For the received cookies that get ‘Max-Age=0’ set, curl would treat the zero value the same way as any number and therefore have the cookie continue to exist during the whole second it arrived (time() + 0 basically). The cookie RFC is actually rather clear that receiving a zero for this parameter is a special case and means that it should rather expire it immediately and now curl does.

Timeout handling – when calling curl_easy_perform() to do a transfer, and you ask libcurl to timeout that transfer after say 5.1 seconds, the transfer hasn’t completed in that time and the connection is in fact totally idle at that time, a recent regression would make libcurl not figure this out until a full 6 seconds had elapsed.

NSS – we fixed several minor  issues in the NSS back-end this time. Perhaps the most important issue was if the installed NSS library has been built with TLS 1.3 disabled while curl was built knowing about TLS 1.3, as then things like the ‘–tlsv1.2’ option would still cause errors. Now curl will fall back correctly. Fixes were also made to make sure curl again works with NSS versions back to 3.14.

OpenSSL – with TLS 1.3 session resumption was changed for TLS, but now curl will support it with OpenSSL.

snprintf – curl has always had its own implementation of the *printf() family of functions for portability reasons. First, traditionally snprintf() was not universally available but then also different implementations have different support for things like 64 bit integers or size_t fields and they would disagree on return values. Since curl’s snprintf() implementation doesn’t use the same return code as POSIX or other common implementations we decided we shouldn’t use the same name so that we don’t fool readers of code into believing that they are fully compatible. For that reason, we now also “ban” the use of snprintf() in the curl code.

URL parsing – there were several regressions from the URL parsing news introduced in curl 7.62.0. That os the first release that offers the new URL API for applications, and we also then switched the internals to use that new code. Perhaps the funniest error was how a short name plus port number (hello:80) was accidentally treated as a “scheme” by the parser and since the scheme was unknown the URL was rejected. The numerical IPv6 address parser was also badly broken – I take the blame for not writing good enough test cases for it which made me not realize this in time. Two related regressions that came from the URL  work broke HTTP Digest auth and some LDAP transfers.

DoH over HTTP/1 – DNS-over-HTTPS was simply not enabled in the build if HTTP/2 support wasn’t there, which was an unnecessary restriction and now h2-disabled builds will also be able to resolve host names using DoH.

Trailing dots in host name – an old favorite subject came back to haunt us and starting in this version, curl will keep any trailing dot in the host name when it resolves the name, and strip it off for all the rest of the uses where the name will be passed in: for cookies, for the HTTP Host: header and for the TLS SNI field. This, since most resolver APIs makes a difference between resolving “host” compared to “host.” and we wouldn’t previously acknowledge or support the two versions.

HTTP/2 – When we enabled HTTP/2 by default for more transfers in 7.62.0, we of course knew that could force more latent bugs to float up to the surface and get noticed. We made curl understand  HTTP_1_1_REQUIRED error when received over HTTP/2 and then retry over HTTP/1.1. and if NTLM is selected as the authentication to use curl now forces HTTP/1 use.

Next release

We have suggested new features already lined up waiting to get merged so the next version is likely to be called 7.64.0 and it is scheduled to happen on February 6th 2019.

curl 7.62.0 MOAR STUFF

This is a feature-packed release with more new stuff than usual.

Numbers

the 177th release
10 changes
56 days (total: 7,419)

118 bug fixes (total: 4,758)
238 commits (total: 23,677)
5 new public libcurl functions (total: 80)
2 new curl_easy_setopt() options (total: 261)

1 new curl command line option (total: 219)
49 contributors, 21 new (total: 1,808)
38 authors, 19 new (total: 632)
  3 security fixes (total: 84)

Security

New since the previous release is the dedicated curl bug bounty program. I’m not sure if this program has caused any increase in reports as it feels like a little too early to tell.

CVE-2018-16839 – an integer overflow case that triggers on 32 bit machines given extremely long input user name argument, when using POP3, SMTP or IMAP.

CVE-2018-16840 – a use-after-free issue. Immediately after having freed a struct in the easy handle close function, libcurl might write a boolean to that struct!

CVE-2018-16842 – is a vulnerability in the curl command line tool’s “warning” message display code which can make it read outside of a buffer and send unintended memory contents to stderr.

All three of these issues are deemed to have low severity and to be hard to exploit.

New APIs!

We introduce a brand new URL API, that lets applications parse and generate URLs, using libcurl’s own parser. Five new public functions in one go there! The link goes to the separate blog entry that explained it.

A brand new function is introduced (curl_easy_upkeep) to let applications maintain idle connections while no transfers are in progress! Perfect to maintain HTTP/2 connections for example that have a PING frame that might need attention.

More changes

Applications using libcurl’s multi interface will now get multiplexing enabled by default, and HTTP/2 will be selected for HTTPS connections. With these new changes of the default behavior, we hope that lots of applications out there just transparently and magically will start to perform better over time without anyone having to change anything!

We shipped DNS-over-HTTPS support. With DoH, your internet client can do secure and private name resolves easier. Follow the link for the full blog entry with details.

The good people at MesaLink has a TLS library written in rust, and in this release you can build libcurl to use that library. We haven’t had a new TLS backend supported since 2012!

Our default IMAP handling is slightly changed, to use the proper standards compliant “UID FETCH” method instead of just “FETCH”. This might introduce some changes in behavior so if you’re doing IMAP transfers, I advice you to mind your step into this upgrade.

Starting in 7.62.0, applications can now set the buffer size libcurl will use for uploads. The buffers used for download and upload are separate and applications have been able to specify the download buffer size for a long time already and now they can finally do it for uploads too. Most applications won’t need to bother about it, but for some edge case uses there are performance gains to be had by bumping this size up. For example when doing SFTP uploads over high latency high bandwidth connections.

curl builds that use libressl will now at last show the correct libressl version number in the “curl -V” output.

Deprecating legacy

CURLOPT_DNS_USE_GLOBAL_CACHE is deprecated! If there’s not a massive complaint uproar, this means this option will effectively be made pointless in April 2019. The global cache isn’t thread-safe and has been called obsolete in the docs since 2002!

HTTP pipelining support is deprecated! Starting in this version, asking for pipelining will be ignored by libcurl. We strongly urge users to switch to and use HTTP/2, which in 99% of the cases is the better alternative to HTTP/1.1 Pipelining. The pipelining code in libcurl has stability problems. The impact of disabled pipelining should be minimal but some applications will of course notice. Also note the section about HTTP/2 and multiplexing by default under “changes” above.

To get an overview of all things marked for deprecation in curl and their individual status check out this page.

Interesting bug-fixes

TLS 1.3 support for GnuTLS landed. Now you can build curl to support TLS 1.3 with most of the TLS libraries curl supports: GnuTLS, OpenSSL, BoringSSL, libressl, Secure Transport, WolfSSL, NSS and MesaLink.

curl got Windows VT Support and UTF-8 output enabled, which should make fancy things like “curl wttr.in” to render nice outputs out of the box on Windows as well!

The TLS backends got a little cleanup and error code use unification so that they should now all return the same error code for the same problem no matter which backend you use!

When you use curl to do URL “globbing” as for example “curl http://localhost/[1-22]” to fetch a range or a series of resources and accidentally mess up the range, curl would previously just say that it detected an error in the glob pattern. Starting now, it will also try to show exactly where in which pattern it found the error that made it stop processing it.

CI

The curl for Windows CI builds on AppVeyor are now finally also running the test suite! Actually making sure that the Windows build is intact in every commit and PR is a huge step forward for us and our aim to keep curl functional. We also build several additional and different build combinations on Windows in the CI than we did previously. All in an effort to reduce regressions.

We’ve added four new checks to travis (that run on every pull-request and commit):

  1. The “tidy” build runs clang-tidy on all sources in src/ and lib/.
  2. a –disable-verbose build makes sure this configure option still builds curl warning-free
  3. the “distcheck” build now scans all files for accidental unicode BOM markers
  4. a MesaLink-using build verifies this configuration

CI build times

We’re right now doing 40 builds on every commit, spending around 12 hours of CPU time for a full round. With >230 landed commits in the tree that originated from 150-something pull requests,  with a lot of them having been worked out using multiple commits, we’ve done perhaps 500 full round CI builds in these 56 days.

This of course doesn’t include all the CPU time developers spend locally before submitting PRs or even the autobuild system that currently runs somewhere in the order of 50 builds per day. If we assume an average time spent for each build+test to take 20 minutes, this adds another 930 hours of CI hours done from the time of the previous release until this release.

To sum up, that’s about 7,000 hours of CI spent in 56 days, equaling about 520% non-stop CPU time!

We are grateful for all the help we get!

Next release

The next release will ship on December 12, 2018 unless something urgent happens before that.

Note that this date breaks the regular eight week release cycle and is only six weeks off. We do this since the originally planned date would happen in the middle of Christmas when “someone” plans to be off traveling…

The next release will probably become 7.63.0 since we already have new changes knocking on the door waiting to get merged that will warrant another minor number bump. Stay tuned for details!

curl 7.61.1 comes with only bug-fixes

Already at the time when we shipped the previous release, 7.61.0, I had decided I wanted to do a patch release next. We had some pretty serious HTTP/2 bugs in the pipe to get fixed and there were a bunch of other unresolved issues also awaiting their treatments. Then I took off on vacation and and the HTTP/2 fixes took a longer time than expected to get on top of, so I subsequently decided that this would become a bug-fix-only release cycle. No features and no changes would be merged into master. So this is what eight weeks of only bug-fixes can look like.

Numbers

the 176th release
0 changes
56 days (total: 7,419)

102 bug fixes (total: 4,640)
151 commits (total: 23,439)
0 new curl_easy_setopt() options (total: 258)

0 new curl command line option (total: 218)
46 contributors, 21 new (total: 1,787)
27 authors, 14 new (total: 612)
  1 security fix (total: 81)

Notable bug-fixes this cycle

Among the many small fixes that went in, I feel the following ones deserve a little extra highlighting…

NTLM password overflow via integer overflow

This latest security fix (CVE-2018-14618) is almost identical to an earlier one we fixed back in 2017 called CVE-2017-8816, and is just as silly…

The internal function Curl_ntlm_core_mk_nt_hash() takes a password argument, the same password that is passed to libcurl from an application. It then gets the length of that password and allocates a memory area that is twice the length, since it needs to expand the password. Due to a lack of checks, this calculation will overflow and wrap on a 32 bit machine if a password that is longer than 2 gigabytes is passed to this function. It will then lead to a very small memory allocation, followed by an attempt to write a very long password to that small memory buffer. A heap memory overflow.

Some mitigating details: most architectures support 64 bit size_t these days. Most applications won’t allow passing in passwords that are two gigabytes.

This bug has been around since libcurl 7.15.4, released back in 2006!

Oh, and on the curl web site we now use the CVE number in the actual URL for all the security vulnerabilities to make them easier to find and refer to.

HTTP/2 issues

This was actually a whole set of small problems that together made the new crawler example not work very well – until fixed. I think it is safe to say that HTTP/2 users of libcurl have previously used it in a pretty “tidy” fashion, because I believe I corrected four or five separate issues that made it misbehave.  It was rather pure luck that has made it still work as well as it has for past users!

Another HTTP/2 bug we ran into recently involved us discovering a little quirk in the underlying nghttp2 library, which in some very special circumstances would refuse to blank out the stream id to struct pointer mapping which would lead to it delivering a pointer to a stale (already freed) struct at a later point. This is fixed in nghttp2 now, shipped in its recent 1.33.0 release.

Windows send-buffer tuning

Making uploads on Windows from between two to seven times faster than before is certainly almost like a dream come true. This is what 7.61.1 offers!

Upload buffer size increased

In tests triggered by the fix above, it was noticed that curl did not meet our performance expectations when doing uploads on really high speed networks, notably on localhost or when using SFTP. We could easily double the speed by just increasing the upload buffer size. Starting now, curl allocates the upload buffer on demand (since many transfers don’t need it), and now allocates a 64KB buffer instead of the previous 16KB. It has been using 16KB since the 2001, and with the on-demand setup and the fact that computer memories have grown a bit during 17 years I think it is well motivated.

A future curl version will surely allow the application to set this upload buffer size. The receive buffer size can already be set.

Darwinssl goes ALPN

While perhaps in the grey area of what a bugfix can be, this fix  allows curl to negotiate ALPN using the darwinssl backend, which by extension means that curl built to use darwinssl can now – finally – do HTTP/2 over HTTPS! Darwinssl is also known under the name Secure Transport, the native TLS library on macOS.

Note however that macOS’ own curl builds that Apple ships are no longer built to use Secure Transport, they use libressl these days.

The Auth Bearer fix

When we added support for Auth Bearer tokens in 7.61.0, we accidentally caused a regression that now is history. This bug seems to in particular have hit git users for some reason.

-OJ regression

The introduction of bold headers in 7.61.0 caused a regression which made a command line like “curl -O -J http://example.com/” to fail, even if a Content-Disposition: header with a correct file name was passed on.

Cookie order

Old readers of this blog may remember my ramblings on cookie sort order from back in the days when we worked on what eventually became RFC 6265.

Anyway, we never did take all aspects of that spec into account when we sort cookies on the HTTP headers sent off to servers, and it has very rarely caused users any grief. Still, now Daniel Gustafsson did a glorious job and tweaked the code to also take creation order into account, exactly like the spec says we should! There’s still some gotchas in this, but at least it should be much closer to what the spec says and what some sites might assume a cookie-using client should do…

Unbold properly

Yet another regression. Remember how curl 7.61.0 introduced the cool bold headers in the terminal? Turns out I of course had my escape sequences done wrong, so in a large number of terminal programs the end-of-bold sequence (“CSI 21 m”) that curl sent didn’t actually switch off the bold style. This would lead to the terminal either getting all bold all the time or on some terminals getting funny colors etc.

In 7.61.1, curl sends the “switch off all styles” code (“CSI 0 m”) that hopefully should work better for people!

Next release!

We’ve held up a whole bunch of pull requests to ship this patch-only release. Once this is out the door, we’ll open the flood gates and accept the nearly 10 changes that are eagerly waiting merge. Expect my next release blog post to mention several new things in curl!

curl 7.61.0

Yet again we say hello to a new curl release that has been uploaded to the servers and sent off into the world. Version 7.61.0 (full changelog). It has been exactly eight weeks since 7.60.0 shipped.

Numbers

the 175th release
7 changes
56 days (total: 7,419)

88 bug fixes (total: 4,538)
158 commits (total: 23,288)
3 new curl_easy_setopt() options (total: 258)

4 new curl command line option (total: 218)
55 contributors, 25 new (total: 1,766)
42 authors, 18 new (total: 596)
  1 security fix (total: 81)

Security fixes

SMTP send heap buffer overflow (CVE-2018-0500)

A stupid heap buffer overflow that can be triggered when the application asks curl to use a smaller download buffer than default and then sends a larger file – over SMTP. Details.

New features

The trailing dot zero in the version number reveals that we added some news this time around – again.

More microsecond timers

Over several recent releases we’ve introduced ways to extract timer information from libcurl that uses integers to return time information with microsecond resolution, as a complement to the ones we already offer using doubles. This gives a better precision and avoids forcing applications to use floating point math.

Bold headers

The curl tool now outputs header names using a bold typeface!

Bearer tokens

The auth support now allows applications to set the specific bearer tokens to pass on.

TLS 1.3 cipher suites

As TLS 1.3 has a different set of suites, using different names, than previous TLS versions, an application that doesn’t know if the server supports TLS 1.2 or TLS 1.3 can’t set the ciphers in the single existing option since that would use names for 1.2 and not work for 1.3 . The new option for libcurl is called CURLOPT_TLS13_CIPHERS.

Disallow user name in URL

There’s now a new option that can tell curl to not acknowledge and support user names in the URL. User names in URLs can brings some security issues since they’re often sent or stored in plain text, plus if .netrc support is enabled a script accepting externally set URLs could risk getting exposing the privately set password.

Awesome bug-fixes this time

Some of my favorites include…

Resolver local host names faster

When curl is built to use the threaded resolver, which is the default choice, it will now resolve locally available host names faster. Locally as present in /etc/hosts or in the OS cache etc.

Use latest PSL and refresh it periodically

curl can now be built to use an external PSL (Public Suffix List) file so that it can get updated independently of the curl executable and thus better keep in sync with the list and the reality of the Internet.

Rumors say there are Linux distros that might start providing and updating the PSL file in separate package, much like they provide CA certificates already.

fnmatch: use the system one if available

The somewhat rare FTP wildcard matching feature always had its own internal fnmatch implementation, but now we’ve finally ditched that in favour of the system fnmatch() function for platforms that have such a one. It shrinks footprint and removes an attack surface – we’ve had a fair share of tiresome fuzzing issues in the custom fnmatch code.

axTLS: not considered fit for use

In an effort to slowly increase our requirement on third party code that we might tell users to build curl to use, we’ve made curl fail to build if asked to use the axTLS backend. This since we have serious doubts about the quality and commitment of the code and that project. This is just step one. If no one yells and fights for axTLS’ future in curl going forward, we will remove all traces of axTLS support from curl exactly six months after step one was merged. There are plenty of other and better TLS backends to use!

Detailed in our new DEPRECATE document.

TLS 1.3 used by default

When negotiating TLS version in the TLS handshake, curl will now allow TLS 1.3 by default. Previously you needed to explicitly allow that. TLS 1.3 support is not yet present everywhere so it will depend on the TLS library and its version that your curl is using.

Coming up?

We have several changes and new features lined up for next release. Stay tuned!

First, we will however most probably schedule a patch release, as we have two rather nasty HTTP/2 bugs filed that we want fixed. Once we have them fixed in a way we like, I think we’d like to see those go out in a patch release before the next pending feature release.

The curl 7 series reaches 60

curl 7.60.0 is released. Remember 7.59.0? This latest release cycle was a week longer than normal since the last was one week shorter and we had this particular release date adapted to my traveling last week. It gave us 63 days to cram things in, instead of the regular 56 days.

7.60.0 is a crazy version number in many ways. We’ve been working on the version 7 series since virtually forever (the year 2000) and there’s no version 8 in sight any time soon. This is the 174th curl release ever.

I believe we shouldn’t allow the minor number to go above 99 (because I think it will cause serious confusion among users) so we should come up with a scheme to switch to version 8 before 7.99.0 gets old. If we keeping doing a new minor version every eight weeks, which seems like the fastest route, math tells us that’s a mere 6 years away.

Numbers

In the 63 days since the previous release, we have done and had..

3 changes
111 bug fixes (total: 4,450)
166 commits (total: 23,119)
2 new curl_easy_setopt() options (total: 255)

1 new curl command line option (total: 214)
64 contributors, 36 new (total: 1,741)
42 authors (total: 577)
2 security fixes (total: 80)

What good does 7.60.0 bring?

Our tireless and fierce army of security researches keep hammering away at every angle of our code and this has again unveiled vulnerabilities in previously released curl code:

  1. FTP shutdown response buffer overflow: CVE-2018-1000300

When you tell libcurl to use a larger buffer size, that larger buffer size is not used for the shut down of an FTP connection so if the server then sends back a huge response during that sequence, it would buffer-overflow a heap based buffer.

2. RTSP bad headers buffer over-read: CVE-2018-1000301

The header parser function would sometimes not restore a pointer back to the beginning of the buffer, which could lead to a subsequent function reading out of buffer and causing a crash or potential information leak.

There are also two new features introduced in this version:

HAProxy protocol support

HAProxy has pioneered this simple protocol for clients to pass on meta-data to the server about where it comes from; designed to allow systems to chain proxies / reverse-proxies without losing information about the original originating client. Now you can make your libcurl-using application switch this on with CURLOPT_HAPROXYPROTOCOL and from the command line with curl’s new –haproxy-protocol option.

Shuffling DNS addresses

Over six years ago, I blogged on how round robin DNS doesn’t really work these days. Once upon the time the gethostbyname() family of functions actually returned addresses in a sort of random fashion, which made clients use them in an almost random fashion and therefore they were spread out on the different addresses. When getaddrinfo() has taken over as the name resolving function, it also introduced address sorting and prioritizing, in a way that effectively breaks the round robin approach.

Now, you can get this feature back with libcurl. Set CURLOPT_DNS_SHUFFLE_ADDRESSES to have the list of addresses shuffled after resolved, before they’re used. If you’re connecting to a service that offer several IP addresses and you want to connect to one of those addresses in a semi-random fashion, this option is for you.

There’s no command line option to switch this on. Yet.

Bug fixes

We did many bug fixes for this release as usual, but some of my favorite ones this time around are…

improved pending transfers for HTTP/2

libcurl-using applications that add more transfers than what can be sent over the wire immediately (usually because the application as set some limitation of the parallelism libcurl will do) can be held “pending” by libcurl. They’re basically kept in a separate queue until there’s a chance to send them off. They will then be attempted to get started when the streams than are in progress end.

The algorithm for retrying the pending transfers were quite naive and “brute-force” which made it terribly slow and in effective when there are many transfers waiting in the pending queue. This slowed down the transfers unnecessarily.

With the fixes we’ve landed in7.60.0, the algorithm is less stupid which leads to much less overhead and for this setup, much faster transfers.

curl_multi_timeout values with threaded resolver

When using a libcurl version that is built to use a threaded resolver, there’s no socket to wait for during the name resolving phase so we’ve often recommended users to just wait “a short while” during this interval. That has always been a weakness and an unfortunate situation.

Starting now, curl_multi_timeout() will return suitable timeout values during this period so that users will no longer have to re-implement that logic themselves. The timeouts will be slowly increasing to make sure fast resolves are detected quickly but slow resolves don’t consume too much CPU.

much faster cookies

The cookie code in libcurl was keeping them all in a linear linked list. That’s fine for small amounts of cookies or perhaps if you don’t manipulate them much.

Users with several hundred cookies, or even thousands, will in 7.60.0 notice a speed increase that in some situations are in the order of several magnitudes when the internal representation has changed to use hash tables and some good cleanups were made.

HTTP/2 GOAWAY-handling

We figure out some problems in libcurl’s handling of GOAWAY, like when an application wants to do a bunch of transfers over a connection that suddenly gets a GOAWAY so that libcurl needs to create a new connection to do the rest of the pending transfers over.

Turns out nginx ships with a config option named http2_max_requests that sets the maximum number of requests it allows over the same connection before it sends GOAWAY over it (and it defaults to 1000). This option isn’t very well explained in their docs and it seems users won’t really know what good values to set it to, so this is probably the primary reason clients see GOAWAYs where there’s no apparent good reason for them.

Setting the value to a ridiculously low value at least helped me debug this problem and improve how libcurl deals with it!

Repair non-ASCII support

We’ve supported transfers with libcurl on non-ASCII platforms since early 2007. Non-ASCII here basically means EBCDIC, but the code hasn’t been limited to those.

However, due to this being used by only a small amount of users and that our test infrastructure doesn’t test this feature good enough, we slipped recently and broke libcurl for the non-ASCII users. Work was put in and changes were landed to make sure that libcurl works again on these systems!

Enjoy 7.60.0! In 56 days there should be another release to play with…