Fiber breakage, day 4


Warning to sensitive viewers, this is seriously scary stuff. So this happened Monday and I’m still to see any service people show up here to help me restore my life (I of course requested help within minutes). What you see here is a fiber that’s been cut off – the fiber that goes into my house. Turns out even a small excavator can do great damage. Who knew?!

We’re now forced to survive on LTE only and the household suddenly has gotten a much bigger appreciation for the regular 1000/1000 mbit connectivity…

Friday 14th: a service guy was here, repaired the “cable” but failed to “blow in” a new fiber into the tube. According to him, there’s some kind of dust/rubbish now in the tube that’s in the way so it became a larger issue. He had to take off again and says they need to come back next week…

Using fixed port numbers for curl tests is now history!

Test suite basics

The curl test suite fires up a whole bunch of test servers for the various supported protocols, and then command lines using curl or libcurl-using dedicated test apps are run against those servers to make sure curl is acting exactly as it is supposed to.

The curl test suite was introduced back in the year 2000 and has of course grown and been developed substantially since then.

Each test server is invoked and handles a specific protocol or set of protocols, so to make sure curl’s 24 transfer protocols are tested, a lot of test server instances are spun up. The test servers normally don’t shut down after each individual test but instead keep running in case there are more tests for that protocol for speedier operations. When all tests are completed, all the test servers are shut down again.

Port numbers

The protocols curl communicates with are all done over TCP or UDP, and therefore each test server needs to listen to a dedicated port so that the tests can be invoked and curl can use the protocols correctly.

We started the test suite once by using port number 8990 as a default “base port”, and then each subsequent server it invokes gets the next port number. A full round can use up to 30 or so ports.

The script needed to know what port number to use so that it could invoke the tests to use the correct port number. But port numbers are both a scarce resource and a resource that can only be used by one server at a time, so if you would simultaneously invoke the curl test suite a second time on the same machine, it would cause havoc since it would attempt to use the same port numbers again.

Not to mention that when various users run the test suite on their machines, on servers or in CI jobs, just assuming or hoping that we could use a range of 30 fixed port numbers is error-prone and it would occasionally cause us trouble.

Dynamic port numbers

A few months ago, in April 2020, I started the work on changing how the curl test suite uses port numbers for its test servers. Each used test server would instead get fired up on a totally random port number, and then feed back that number to the test script that then would use the actually used port number to run the tests against.

It took some rearranging of internal logic to make sure things still worked and that the comparison of the generated protocol etc still would work. Then it was “just” a matter of converting over all test servers to this new dynamic concept and made sure that there was no old-style assumptions lingering around in the test cases.

Some of the more tricky changes for this new paradigm was the protocol parts that use the port number in data where curl base64 encodes the chunk and sends it to the server.

Reaching the end of that journey

The final fixed port number in the curl test suite was removed when we merged PR 5783 on August 7 2020. Now, every test in curl that needs a port number uses a dynamic port number.

Now we can run “make test” from multiple shells on the same machine in parallel without problems.

It can allow us to improve the test suite further and maybe for example run multiple tests in parallel in order to reduce the total execution time. It will avoid future port collisions. A small, but very good step forward.



Image by Gerd Altmann from Pixabay

Upcoming Webinar: curl: How to Make Your First Code Contribution

When: Aug 13, 2020 10:00 AM Pacific Time (US and Canada) (17:00 UTC)
Length: 30 minutes

Abstract: curl is a wildly popular and well-used open source tool and library, and is the result of more than 2,200 named contributors helping out. Over 800 individuals wrote at least one commit so far.

In this presentation, curl’s lead developer Daniel Stenberg talks about how any developer can proceed in order to get their first code contribution submitted and ultimately landed in the curl git repository. Approach to code and commits, style, editing, pull-requests, using github etc. After you’ve seen this, you’ll know how to easily submit your improvement to curl and potentially end up running in ten billion installations world-wide.

Register in advance for this webinar:

curl ootw: –path-as-is

Previous options of the week.

--path-as-is is a boolean option that was added in curl 7.42.0.

Path normalization in URLs

I hope it isn’t a surprise to you that curl works on URLs. It’s one of the fundamental pillars of curl. The “URLs” curl work with are actually called “URIs” in the IETF specs and the primary specification for them is RFC 3986. (But also: my URL is not your URL…)

A URL can be split up into several different components, which is typically done by the “URL parser” in a program like curl. For example , we can identify a scheme, a host name and a path.

When a program is given a URL, and the program has identified the path part of that URL – it is supposed to “Remove Dot Segments” (to use the wording from RFC 3986) before that path is used.

Remove Dot Segments

Let me show you this with an example to make it clear. Ponder that you pass this URL to curl: "". Those funny dot-dot sequences in there is traditional directory traversal speak for “one directory up”, while a single "./" means in the same directory.

RFC 3986 says these sequences should be removed, so curl will iterate and remove them accordingly. A sequence like "word/../" will effectively evaluate to nothing. The example URL above will be massaged into the final version: "" and so curl will ask the server for just /file.

Compare the HTTP requests

Seen as pure HTTP 1.1, the result of the command line used without --path-as-is:

GET /file HTTP/1.1
user-agent: curl/7.71.0
accept: */*

Same command line, with --path-as-is:

GET /hello/../to/../your/../file HTTP/1.1
user-agent: curl/7.71.1
accept: */*

Trick thy server

HTTP servers have over the years been found to have errors and mistakes in how they handle paths and a common way to exploit such flaws has been to pass on exactly this kind of dot-dot sequences to servers.

The very minute curl started removing these sequences (as the spec tells us) security researcher objected and asked for ways to tell curl to not do this. Enter --path-as-is. Use this option to make curl send the path exactly as provided in the URL, without removing any dot segments.

Related options

Other curl options that allow you to customize HTTP request details include --header, --request and --request-target.

curl ootw: –silent

Previous options of the week.

--silent (-s) existed in curl already in the first ever version released: 4.0.

Silent by default

I’ve always enjoyed the principles of Unix command line tool philosophy and I’ve tried to stay true to them in the design and implementation of the curl command line tool: everything is a pipe, don’t “speak” more than necessary by default.

As a result of the latter guideline, curl features the --verbose option if you prefer it to talk and explain more about what’s going on. By default – when everything is fine – it doesn’t speak much extra.

Initially: two things were “spoken”

To show users that something is happening during a command line invoke that takes a long time, we added a “progress meter” display. But since you can also ask curl to output text or data in the terminal, curl has logic to automatically switch off the progress meter display to avoid content output to get mixed with it.

Of course we very quickly figured out that there are also other use cases where the progress meter was annoying so we needed to offer a way to shut it off. To keep silent! --silent was the obvious choice for option name and -s was conveniently still available.

The other thing that curl “speaks” by default is the error message. If curl fails to perform the transfer or operation as asked to, it will output a single line message about it when it is done, and then return an error code.

When we added an option called --silent to make curl be truly silent, we also made it hush the error message. curl still returns an error code, so shell scripts and similar environments that invoke curl can still detect errors perfectly fine. Just possibly slightly less human friendly.

But I want my errors?

In May 1999, the tool was just fourteen months old, we added --show-error (-S) for users that wanted to curl to be quiet in general but still wanted to see the error message in case it failed. The -Ss combination has been commonly used ever since.

More information added

Over time we’ve made the tool more complex and we’ve felt that it needs some more informational output in some cases. For example, when you use --retry, curl will say something that it will try again etc. The reason is of course that --verbose is really verbose so its not really the way to ask for such little extra helpful info.

Only shut off the progress meter

Not too long ago, we ended up with a new situation where the --silent option is a bit too silent since it also disables the text for retry etc so what if you just want to shut off the progress meter?

--no-progress-meter was added for that, which thus is a modern replacement for --silent in many cases.

curl 7.71.1 – try again

This is a follow-up patch release a mere week after the grand 7.71.0 release. While we added a few minor regressions in that release, one of them were significant enough to make us decide to fix and ship an update sooner rather than later. I’ll elaborate below.

Every early patch release we do is a minor failure in our process as it means we shipped annoying/serious bugs. That of course tells us that we didn’t test all features and areas good enough before the release. I apologize.


the 193rd release
0 changes
7 days (total: 8,139)

18 bug fixes (total: 6,227)
32 commits (total: 25,943)
0 new public libcurl function (total: 82)
0 new curl_easy_setopt() option (total: 277)

0 new curl command line option (total: 232)
16 contributors, 8 new (total: 2,210)
5 authors, 2 new (total: 805)
0 security fixes (total: 94)
0 USD paid in Bug Bounties


compare cert blob when finding a connection to reuse – when specifying the client cert to libcurl as a “blob”, it needs to compare that when it subsequently wants to reuse a connection, as curl already does when specifying the certificate with a file name.

curl_easy_escape: zero length input should return a zero length output – a regression when I switched over the logic to use the new dynbuf API: I inadvertently modified behavior for escaping an empty string which then broke applications. Now verified with a new test.

set the correct URL in pushed HTTP/2 transfers – the CURLINFO_EFFECTIVE_URL variable previously didn’t work for pushed streams. They would all just claim to be the parent stream’s URL.

fix HTTP proxy auth with blank password – another dynbuf conversion regression that now is verified with a new test. curl would pass in “(nil)” instead of a blank string (“”).

terminology: call them null-terminated strings – after discussions and an informal twitter poll, we’ve rephrased all documentation for libcurl to use the phrase “null-terminated strings” and nothing else.

allow user + password to contain “control codes” for HTTP(S) – previously byte values below 32 would maybe work but not always. Someone with a newline in the user name reported a problem. It can be noted that those kind of characters will not work in the credentials for most other protocols curl supports.

Reverted the implementation of “wait using winsock events” – another regression that apparently wasn’t tested good enough before it landed and we take the opportunity here to move back to the solution we have before. This change will probably take another round and aim to get landed in a better shape in a future.

ngtcp2: sync with current master – interestingly enough, the ngtcp2 project managed to yet again update their API exactly this week between these two curl releases. This means curl 7.71.1 can be built against the latest ngtcp2 code to speak QUIC and HTTP/3.

In parallel with that ngtcp2 sync, I also ran into a new problem with BoringSSL’s master branch that is fixed now. Timely for us, as we can now also boast with having the quiche backend in sync and speaking HTTP/3 fine with the latest and most up-to-date software.


We have not updated the release schedule. This means we will have almost three weeks for merging new features coming up then four weeks of bug-fixing only until we ship another release on August 19 2020. And on and on we go.

curl ootw: –remote-time

Previous command line options of the week.

--remote-time is a boolean flag using the -R short option. This option was added to curl 7.9 back in September 2001.

Downloading a file

One of the most basic curl use cases is “downloading a file”. When the URL identifies a specific remote resource and the command line transfers the data of that resource to the local file system:

curl -O

This command line will then copy every single byte of that file and create a duplicated resource locally – with a time stamp using the current time. Having this time stamp as a default seems natural as it was created just now and it makes it work fine with other options such as --time-cond.

Use the remote file’s time stamp please

There are times when you rather want the download to get the exact same modification date and time as the remote file has. We made --remote-time do that.

By adding this command line option, curl will figure out the exact date and time of the remote file and set that same time stamp on the file it creates locally.

This option works with several protocols, including FTP, but there are and will be many situations in which curl cannot figure out the remote time – sometimes simply because the server won’t tell – and then curl will simply not be able to copy the time stamp and it will instead keep the current date and time.

Not be default

This option is not by default because.

  1. curl mimics known tools like cp which creates a new file stamp by default.
  2. For some protocols it requires an extra operation which then can be avoided if the time stamp isn’t actually used for anything.

Combine this with…

As mentioned briefly above, the --remote-time command line option can be really useful to combine with the --time-cond flag. An example of a practical use case for this is a command line that you can invoke repeatedly, but only downloads the new file in case it was updated remotely since the previous time it was downloaded! Like this:

curl --remote-name --time-cond cacert.pem

This particular example comes from the curl’s CA extract web page and downloads the latest Mozilla CA store as a PEM file.

tech, open source and networking