This is my presentation for curl up 2020 summing up where we’re at with HTTP/3 support in curl right now.
Monthly Archives: May 2020
curl ootw: –get
(Previous options of the week.)
The long version option is called
--get and the short version uses the capital
-G. Added in the curl 7.8.1 release, in August 2001. Not too many of you, my dear readers, had discovered curl by then.
The thinking behind it
Back in the early 2000s when we had added support for doing POSTs with
-d, it become obvious that to many users the difference between a POST and a GET is rather vague. To many users, sending something with curl is something like “operating with a URL” and you can provide data to that URL.
You can send that data to an HTTP URL using POST by specifying the fields to submit with
-d. If you specify multiple
-d flags on the same command line, they will be concatenated with an ampersand (
&) inserted in between. For example, you want to send both name and bike shed color in a POST to example.com:
curl -d name=Daniel -d shed=green https://example.com/
Okay, so curl can merge
-d data entries like that, which makes the command line pretty clean. What if you instead of POST want to submit your name and the shed color to the URL using the query part of the URL instead and you still would like to use curl’s fancy
-d concatenation feature?
-G. It converts what is setup to be a POST into a GET. The data set with -d to be part of the request body will instead be put after the question mark in the HTTP request! The example from above but with a GET:
curl -G -d name=Daniel -d shed=green https://example.com/
(The actual placement or order of -G vs -d is not important.)
The exact HTTP requests
The first example without
-G creates this HTTP request:
POST / HTTP/1.1 Host: example.com User-agent: curl/7.70.0 Accept: / Content-Length: 22 Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded name=Daniel&shed=green
While the second one, with
-G instead does this:
GET /?name=Daniel&shed=green HTTP/1.1 Host: example.com User-agent: curl/7.70.0 Accept: /
If you want to investigate exactly what HTTP requests your curl command lines produce, I recommend
--trace-ascii if you want to see the HTTP request body as well.
-X GET vs -G
One of the highest scored questions on stackoverflow that I’ve answered concerns exactly this.
-X is only for changing the actual method string in the HTTP request. It doesn’t change behavior and the change is mostly done without curl caring what the new string is. It will behave as if it used the original one it intended to use there.
If you use
-d in a command line, and then add
-X GET to it, curl will still send the request body like it does when
-d is specified.
If you use
-G in a command line, then as explained above, curl sends a GET in the command line and
-X GET will not make any difference (unless you also follow a redirect, in which the
-X may ruin the fun for you).
HTTP allows more kinds of requests than just POST or GET and curl also allows sending more complicated multipart POSTs. Those don’t mix well with
-G; this option is really designed only to convert simple
-d uses to a query string.