Category Archives: Open Source

Open Source, Free Software, and similar

curl user poll 2016

It is time for our annual survey on how you use curl and libcurl. Your chance to tell us how you think we’ve done and what we should do next. The survey will close on midnight (central European time) May 27th, 2016.

If you use curl or libcurl from time to time, please consider helping us out with providing your feedback and opinions on a few things:

http://goo.gl/forms/e4CoSDEKde

It’ll take you a couple of minutes and it’ll help us a lot when making decisions going forward. Thanks a lot!

The poll is hosted by Google and that short link above will take you to:

https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1JftlLZoOZLHRZ_UqigzUDD0AKrTBZqPMpnyOdF2UDic/viewform

My URL isn’t your URL

URLs

When I started the precursor to the curl project, httpget, back in 1996, I wrote my first URL parser. Back then, the universal address was still called URL: Uniform Resource Locators. That spec was published by the IETF in 1994. The term “URL” was then used as source for inspiration when naming the tool and project curl.

The term URL was later effectively changed to become URI, Uniform Resource Identifiers (published in 2005) but the basic point remained: a syntax for a string to specify a resource online and which protocol to use to get it. We claim curl accepts “URLs” as defined by this spec, the RFC 3986. I’ll explain below why it isn’t strictly true.

There was also a companion RFC posted for IRI: Internationalized Resource Identifiers. They are basically URIs but allowing non-ascii characters to be used.

The WHATWG consortium later produced their own URL spec, basically mixing formats and ideas from URIs and IRIs with a (not surprisingly) strong focus on browsers. One of their expressed goals is to “Align RFC 3986 and RFC 3987 with contemporary implementations and obsolete them in the process“. They want to go back and use the term “URL” as they rightfully state, the terms URI and IRI are just confusing and no humans ever really understood them (or often even knew they exist).

The WHATWG spec follows the good old browser mantra of being very liberal in what it accepts and trying to guess what the users mean and bending backwards trying to fulfill. (Even though we all know by now that Postel’s Law is the wrong way to go about this.) It means it’ll handle too many slashes, embedded white space as well as non-ASCII characters.

From my point of view, the spec is also very hard to read and follow due to it not describing the syntax or format very much but focuses far too much on mandating a parsing algorithm. To test my claim: figure out what their spec says about a trailing dot after the host name in a URL.

On top of all these standards and specs, browsers offer an “address bar” (a piece of UI that often goes under other names) that allows users to enter all sorts of fun strings and they get converted over to a URL. If you enter “http://localhost/%41” in the address bar, it’ll convert the percent encoded part to an ‘A’ there for you (since 41 in hex is a capital A in ASCII) but if you type “http://localhost/A A” it’ll actually send “/A%20A” (with a percent encoded space) in the outgoing HTTP GET request. I’m mentioning this since people will often think of what you can enter there as a “URL”.

The above is basically my (skewed) perspective of what specs and standards we have so far to work with. Now we add reality and let’s take a look at what sort of problems we get when my URL isn’t your URL.

So what  is a URL?

Or more specifically, how do we write them. What syntax do we use.

I think one of the biggest mistakes the WHATWG spec has made (and why you will find me argue against their spec in its current form with fierce conviction that they are wrong), is that they seem to believe that URLs are theirs to define and work with and they limit their view of URLs for browsers, HTML and their address bars. Sure, they are the big companies behind the browsers almost everyone uses and URLs are widely used by browsers, but URLs are still much bigger than so.

The WHATWG view of a URL is not widely adopted outside of browsers.

colon-slash-slash

If we ask users, ordinary people with no particular protocol or web expertise, what a URL is what would they answer? While it was probably more notable years ago when the browsers displayed it more prominently, the :// (colon-slash-slash) sequence will be high on the list. Seeing that marks the string as a URL.

Heck, going beyond users, there are email clients, terminal emulators, text editors, perl scripts and a bazillion other things out there in the world already that detects URLs for us and allows operations on that. It could be to open that URL in a browser, to convert it to a clickable link in generated HTML and more. A vast amount of said scripts and programs will use the colon-slash-slash sequence as a trigger.

The WHATWG spec says it has to be one slash and that a parser must accept an indefinite amount of slashes. “http:/example.com” and “http:////////////////////////////////////example.com” are both equally fine. RFC 3986 and many others would disagree. Heck, most people I’ve confronted the last few days, even people working with the web, seem to say, think and believe that a URL has two slashes. Just look closer at the google picture search screen shot at the top of this article, which shows the top images for “URL” google gave me.

We just know a URL has two slashes there (and yeah, file: URLs most have three but lets ignore that for now). Not one. Not three. Two. But the WHATWG doesn’t agree.

“Is there really any reason for accepting more than two slashes for non-file: URLs?” (my annoyed question to the WHATWG)

“The fact that all browsers do.”

The spec says so because browsers have implemented the spec.

No better explanation has been provided, not even after I pointed out that the statement is wrong and far from all browsers do. You may find reading that thread educational.

In the curl project, we’ve just recently started debating how to deal with “URLs” having another amount of slashes than two because it turns out there are servers sending back such URLs in Location: headers, and some browsers are happy to oblige. curl is not and neither is a lot of other libraries and command line tools. Who do we stand up for?

Spaces

A space character (the ASCII code 32, 0x20 in hex) cannot be part of a URL. If you want it sent, you percent encode it like you do with any other illegal character you want to be part of the URL. Percent encoding is the byte value in hexadecimal with a percent sign in front of it. %20 thus means space. It also means that a parser that for example scans for URLs in a text knows that it reaches the end of the URL when the parser encounters a character that isn’t allowed. Like space.

Browsers typically show the address in their address bars with all %20 instances converted to space for appearance. If you copy the address there into your clipboard and then paste it again in your text editor you still normally get the spaces as %20 like you want them.

I’m not sure if that is the reason, but browsers also accept spaces as part of URLs when for example receiving a redirect in a HTTP response. That’s passed from a server to a client using a Location: header with the URL in it. The browsers happily allow spaces in that URL, encode them as %20 and send out the next request. This forced curl into accepting spaces in redirected “URLs”.

Non-ASCII

Making URLs support non-ASCII languages is of course important, especially for non-western societies and I’ve understood that the IRI spec was never good enough. I personally am far from an expert on these internationalization (i18n) issues so I just go by what I’ve heard from others. But of course users of non-latin alphabets and typing systems need to be able to write their “internet addresses” to resources and use as links as well.

In an ideal world, we would have the i18n version shown to users and there would be the encoded ASCII based version below, to get sent over the wire.

For international domain names, the name gets converted over to “punycode” so that it can be resolved using the normal system name resolvers that know nothing about non-ascii names. URIs have no IDN names, IRIs do and WHATWG URLs do. curl supports IDN host names.

WHATWG states that URLs are specified as UTF-8 while URIs are just ASCII. curl gets confused by non-ASCII letters in the path part but percent encodes such byte values in the outgoing requests – which causes “interesting” side-effects when the non-ASCII characters are provided in other encodings than UTF-8 which for example is standard on Windows…

Similar to what I’ve written above, this leads to servers passing back non-ASCII byte codes in HTTP headers that browsers gladly accept, and non-browsers need to deal with…

No URL standard

I’ve not tried to write a conclusive list of problems or differences, just a bunch of things I’ve fallen over recently. A “URL” given in one place is certainly not certain to be accepted or understood as a “URL” in another place.

Not even curl follows any published spec very closely these days, as we’re slowly digressing for the sake of “web compatibility”.

There’s no unified URL standard and there’s no work in progress towards that. I don’t count WHATWG’s spec as a real effort either, as it is written by a closed group with no real attempts to get the wider community involved.

My affiliation

I’m employed by Mozilla and Mozilla is a member of WHATWG and I have colleagues working on the WHATWG URL spec and other work items of theirs but it makes absolutely no difference to what I’ve written here. I also participate in the IETF and I consider myself friends with authors of RFC 1738, RFC 3986 and others but that doesn’t matter here either. My opinions are my own and this is my personal blog.

A book status update

— How’s Daniel’s curl book going?

I can hear absolutely nobody asking. I’ll just go ahead and tell you anyway since I had a plan to get a first version “done” by “the summer” (of 2016). I’m not sure I believe in that time frame anymore.

everything-curl-coverI’m now north of 40,000 words with a bunch of new chapters and sections added recently and I’m now generating an index that looks okay. The PDF version is exactly 200 pages now.

The index part is mainly interesting since the platform I use to write the book on, gitbook.com, doesn’t offer any index functionality of its own so I  had to hack one up and add. That’s just one additional beauty of having the book made entirely in markdown.

Based on what I’ve written so far and know I still have outstanding, I am about 70% done, indicating there are about 17,000 words left for me. At this particular point in time. The words numbers tend to grow over time as the more I write (and the completion level is sort of stuck), the more I think of new sections that I should add and haven’t yet written…

On this page you can get the latest book stats, right off the git repo.

No more heartbleeds please

caution-quarantine-areaAs a reaction to the whole Heartbleed thing two years ago, The Linux Foundation started its Core Infrastructure Initiative (CII for short) with the intention to help track down well used but still poorly maintained projects or at least detect which projects that might need help. Where the next Heartbleed might occur.

A bunch of companies putting in money to improve projects that need help. Sounds almost like a fairy tale to me!

Census

In order to identify which projects to help, they run their Census Project: “The Census represents CII’s current view of the open source ecosystem and which projects are at risk.

The Census automatically extracts a lot of different meta data about open source projects in order to deduce a “Risk Index” for each project. Once you’ve assembled such a great data trove for a busload of projects, you can sort them all based on that risk index number and then you basically end up with a list of projects in a priority order that you can go through and throw code at. Or however they deem the help should be offered.

Which projects will fail?

The old blog post How you know your Free or Open Source Software Project is doomed to FAIL provides such a way, but it isn’t that easy to follow programmatically. The foundation has its own 88 page white paper detailing its methods and algorithm.

Risk Index

  • A project without a web site gets a point
  • If the project has had four or more CVEs (publicly disclosed security vulnerabilities) since 2010, it receives 3 points and if fewer than four there’s a diminishing scale.
  • The number of contributors the last 12 months is a rather heavy factor, which thus could make the index grow old fairly quick. 3 contributors still give 4 points.
  • Popular packages based on Debian’s popcon get points.
  • If the project’s main language is C or C++, it gets two points.
  • Network “exposed” projects get points.
  • some additional details like dependencies and how many outstanding patches not accepted upstream that exist

All combined, this grades projects’ “risk” between 0 and 15.

Not high enough resolution

Assuming that a larger number of CVEs means anything bad is just wrong. Even the most careful and active projects can potentially have large amounts of CVEs. It means they disclose what they find and that people are actually reviewing code, finding problems and are reporting problems. All good things.

Sure, security problems are not good but the absence of CVEs in a project doesn’t say that the project is one bit more secure. It could just mean that nobody ever looked closely enough or that the project doesn’t deal with responsible disclosure of the problems.

When I look through the projects they have right now, I get the feeling the resolution (0-15) is too low and they’ve shied away from more aggressively handing out penalty based on factors we all recognize in abandoned/dead projects (some of which are decently specified in Tom Calloway’s blog post mentioned above).

The result being that the projects get a score that is mostly based on what kind of project it is.

But this said, they have several improvements to their algorithm already suggested in their issue tracker. I firmly believe this will improve over time.

The riskiest ?

The top three projects, the only ones that scores 13 right now are expat, procmail and unzip. All of them really small projects (source code wise) that have been around since a very long time.

curl, being the project I of course look out for, scores a 9: many CVEs (3), written in C (2), network exposure (2), 5+ apps depend on it (2). Seriously, based on these factors, how would you say the project is situated?

In the sorted list with a little over 400 projects, curl is rated #73 (at the time of this writing at least). Just after reportbug but before libattr1. [curl summary – which is mentioning a very old curl release]

But the list of projects mysteriously lack many projects. Like I couldn’t find neither c-ares nor libssh2. They may not be super big, but they’re used by a bunch of smaller and bigger projects at least, including curl itself.

The full list of projects, their meta-data and scores are hosted in their repository on github.

Benefits for projects near me

I can see how projects in my own backyard have gotten some good out of this effort.

I’ve received some really great bug reports and gotten handed security problems in curl by an individual who did his digging funded by this project.

I’ve seen how the foundation sponsored a test suite for c-ares since the project lacked one. Now it doesn’t anymore!

Badges!

In addition to that, the Linux Foundation has also just launched the CII Best Practices Badge Program, to allow open source projects to fill in a bunch of questions and if meeting enough requirements, they will get a “badge” to boast to the world as a “well run project” that meets current open source project best practices.

I’ve joined their mailing list and provided some of my thoughts on the current set of questions, as I consider a few of them to be, well, lets call them “less than optimal”. But then again, which project doesn’t have bugs? We can fix them!

curl is just now marked as “100% compliance” with all the best practices listed. I hope to be able to keep it like that even with future and more best practices added.

curl 7.49.0 goodies coming

Here’s a closer look at three new features that we’re shipping in curl and libcurl 7.49.0, to be released on May 18th 2016.

connect to this instead

If you’re one of the users who thought --resolve and doing Host: header tricks with --header weren’t good enough, you’ll appreciate that we’re adding yet another option for you to fiddle with the connection procedure. Another “Swiss army knife style” option for you who know what you’re doing.

With --connect-to you basically provide an internal alias for a certain name + port to instead internally use another name + port to connect to.

Instead of connecting to HOST1:PORT1, connect to HOST2:PORT2

It is very similar to --resolve which is a way to say: when connecting to HOST1:PORT1 use this ADDR2:PORT2. --resolve effectively prepopulates the internal DNS cache and makes curl completely avoid the DNS lookup and instead feeds it with the IP address you’d like it to use.

--connect-to doesn’t avoid the DNS lookup, but it will make sure that a different host name and destination port pair is used than what was found in the URL. A typical use case for this would be to make sure that your curl request asks a specific server out of several in a pool of many, where each has a unique name but you normally reach them with a single URL who’s host name is otherwise load balanced.

--connect-to can be specified multiple times to add mappings for multiple names, so that even following HTTP redirects to other host names etc can be handled. You don’t even necessarily have to redirect the first used host name.

The libcurl option name for for this feature is CURLOPT_CONNECT_TO.

Michael Kaufmann brought this feature.

http2 prior knowledge

In our ongoing quest to provide more and better HTTP/2 support in a world that is slowly but steadily doing more and more transfers over the new version of the protocol, curl now offers --http2-prior-knowledge.

As the name might hint, this is a way to tell curl that you have “prior knowledge” that the URL you specifies goes to a host that you know supports HTTP/2. The term prior knowledge is in fact used in the HTTP/2 spec (RFC 7540) for this scenario.

Normally when given a HTTP:// or a HTTPS:// URL, there will be no assumption that it supports HTTP/2 but curl when then try to upgrade that from version HTTP/1. The command line tool tries to upgrade all HTTPS:// URLs by default even, and libcurl can be told to do so.

libcurl wise, you ask for a prior knowledge use by setting CURLOPT_HTTP_VERSION to CURL_HTTP_VERSION_2_PRIOR_KNOWLEDGE.

Asking for http2 prior knowledge when the server does in fact not support HTTP/2 will give you an error back.

Diego Bes brought this feature.

TCP Fast Open

TCP Fast Open is documented in RFC 7413 and is basically a way to pass on data to the remote machine earlier in the TCP handshake – already in the SYN and SYN-ACK packets. This of course as a means to get data over faster and reduce latency.

The --tcp-fastopen option is supported on Linux and OS X only for now.

This is an idea and technique that has been around for a while and it is slowly getting implemented and supported by servers. There have been some reports of problems in the wild when “middle boxes” that fiddle with TCP traffic see these packets, that sometimes result in breakage. So this option is opt-in to avoid the risk that it causes problems to users.

A typical real-world case where you would use this option is when  sending an HTTP POST to a site you don’t have a connection already established to. Just note that TFO relies on the client having had contact established with the server before and having a special TFO “cookie” stored and non-expired.

TCP Fast Open is so far only used for clear-text TCP protocols in curl. These days more and more protocols switch over to their TLS counterparts (and there’s room for future improvements to add the initial TLS handshake parts with TFO). A related option to speed up TLS handshakes is --false-start (supported with the NSS or the secure transport backends).

With libcurl, you enable TCP Fast Open with CURLOPT_TCP_FASTOPEN.

Alessandro Ghedini brought this feature.

Absorbing 1,000 emails per day

Some people say email is dead. Some people say there are “email killers” and bring up a bunch of chat and instant messaging services. I think those people communicate far too little to understand how email can scale.

I receive up to around 1,000 emails per day. I average on a little less but I do have spikes way above.

Why do I get a thousand emails?

Primarily because I participate on a lot of mailing lists. I run a handful of open source projects myself, each with at least one list. I follow a bunch more projects; more mailing lists. We have a whole set of mailing lists at work (Mozilla) and I participate and follow several groups in the IETF. Lists and lists. I discuss things with friends on a few private mailing lists. I get notifications from services about things that happen (commits, bugs submitted, builds that break, things that need to get looked at). Mails, mails and mails.

Don’t get me wrong. I prefer email to web forums and stuff because email allows me to participate in literally hundreds of communities from a single spot in an asynchronous manner. That’s a good thing. I would not be able to do the same thing if I had to use one of those “email killers” or web forums.

Unwanted email

I unsubscribe from lists that I grow tired from. I stamp down on spam really hard and I run aggressive filters and blacklists that actually make me receive rather few spam emails these days, percentage wise. There are nowadays about 3,000 emails per month addressed to me that my mail server accepts that are then classified as spam by spamassassin. I used to receive a lot more before we started using better blacklists. (During some periods in the past I received well over a thousand spam emails per day.) Only 2-3 emails per day out of those spam emails fail to get marked as spam correctly and subsequently show up in my inbox.

Flood management

My solution to handling this steady high paced stream of incoming data is prioritization and putting things in different bins. Different inboxes.

  1. Filter incoming email. Save the email into its corresponding mailbox. At this very moment, I have about 30 named inboxes that I read. I read them in order, top to bottom as they’re sorted in roughly importance order (to me).
  2. Mails that don’t match an existing mailing list or topic that get stored into the 28 “topic boxes” run into another check: is the sender a known “friend” ? That’s a loose term I use, but basically means that the mail is from an email address that I have had conversations with before or that I know or trust etc. Mails from “friends” get the honor of getting put in mailbox 0. The primary one. If the mail comes from someone not listed as friend, it’ll end up in my “suspect” mailbox. That’s mailbox 1.
  3. Some of the emails get the honor of getting forwarded to a cloud email service for which I have an app in my phone so that I can get a sense of important mail that arrive. But I basically never respond to email using my phone or using a web interface.
  4. I also use the “spam level” in spams to save them in different spam boxes. The mailbox receiving the highest spam level emails is just erased at random intervals without ever being read (unless I’m tracking down a problem or something) and the “normal” spam mailbox I only check every once in a while just to make sure my filters are not hiding real mails in there.

Reading

I monitor my incoming mails pretty frequently all through the day – every day. My wife calls me obsessed and maybe I am. But I find it much easier to handle the emails a little at a time rather than to wait and have it pile up to huge lumps to deal with.

I receive mail at my own server and I read/write my email using Alpine, a text based mail client that really excels at allowing me to plow through vast amounts of email in a short time – something I can’t say that any UI or web based mail client I’ve tried has managed to do at a similar degree.

A snapshot from my mailbox from a while ago looked like this, with names and some topics blurred out. This is ‘INBOX’, which is the main and highest prioritized one for me.

alpine screenshot

I have my mail client to automatically go to the next inbox when I’m done reading this one. That makes me read them in prio order. I start with the INBOX one where supposedly the most important email arrives, then I check the “suspect” one and then I go down the topic inboxes one by one (my mail client moves on to the next one automatically). Until either I get overwhelmed and just return to the main box for now or I finish them all up.

I tend to try to deal with mails immediately, or I mark them as ‘important’ and store them in the main mailbox so that I can find them again easily and quickly.

I try to only keep mails around in my mailbox that concern ongoing topics, discussions or current matters of concern. Everything else should get stored away. It is hard work to maintain the number of emails there at a low number. As you all know.

Writing email

I averaged at less than 200 emails written per month during 2015. That’s 6-7 per day.

That makes over 150 received emails for every email sent.

fcurl is fread and friends for URLs

This whole family of functions, fopen, fread, fwrite, fgets, fclose and more are defined in the C standard since C89. You can’t really call yourself a C programmer without knowing them and probably even using them in at least a few places.

The charm with these is that they’re standard, they’re easy to use and they’re available everywhere where there’s a C compiler.

A basic example that just reads a file from disk and writes it to stdout could look like this:

FILE *file;

file = fopen("hello.txt", "r");
if(file) {
  char buffer [256];
  while(1) {
    size_t rc = fread(buffer, sizeof(buffer),
                1, file);
    if(rc > 0)
      fwrite(buffer, rc, 1, stdout);
    else
      break;
  }
  fclose(file);
}

Imagine you’d like to switch this example, or one of your actual real world programs that use the fopen() family of functions to read or write files, and instead read and write files from and to the Internet instead using your favorite Internet protocols. How would you do that without having to change your code a lot and do a major refactoring job?

Enter fcurl

I’ve started to work on a library that provides a look-alike API with matching functions and behaviors, but that allows fopen() to instead specify a URL instead of a file name. I call it fcurl. (Much inspired by the libcurl example fopen.c, which I wrote the first version of already back in 2002!)

It is of course open source and is powered by libcurl.

The project is in its early infancy. I think it would be interesting to try it out and I’ve mentioned the idea to a few people that have shown interest. I really can’t make this happen all on my own anyway so while I’ve created a first embryo, it will take some time before it gets truly useful. Help from others would be greatly appreciated of course.

Using this API, a version of the above example that instead reads data from a HTTPS site instead of a local file could look like:

FCURL *file;

file = fcurl_open("https://daniel.haxx.se/",
                  "r");
if(file) {
  char buffer [256];
  while(1) {
    size_t rc = fcurl_read(buffer,         
                           sizeof(buffer), 1, 
                           file);
    if(rc > 0)
      fwrite(buffer, rc, 1, stdout);
    else
      break;
  }
  fcurl_close(file);
}

And it could even actually also read a local file using the file:// sheme.

Drop-in replacement

The idea here is to make the alternative functions have new names but as far as possible accept the same input arguments, return the same return codes and so on.

If we do it right, you could possibly even convert an existing program with just a set of #defines at the top without even having to change the code!

Something like this:

#define FILE FCURL
#define fopen(x,y) fcurl_open(x, y)
#define fclose(x) fcurl_close(x)

I think it is worth considering a way to provide an official macro set like that for those who’d like to switch easily (?) and quickly.

Fun things to consider

1. for non-scheme input, use normal fopen?

An interesting take is probably to make fcurl_open() treat input specified without a “scheme://” to be a local file, and then passed to fopen() instead under the hood. That would then enable even more code to switch to fcurl since all the existing use cases with local file names would just continue to work.

2. LD_PRELOAD

An interesting area of deeper research around this could be to provide a way to LD_PRELOAD replacements for the functions so that not even any source code would need be changed and already built existing binaries could be given this functionality.

3. fopencookie

There’s also the GNU libc’s fopencookie concept to figure out if that is something for fcurl to support/use. BSD and OS X have something similar called funopen.

4. merge in official libcurl

If this turns out useful, appreciated and good. We could consider moving the API in under the curl project’s umbrella and possibly eventually even making it part of the actual libcurl. But hey, we’re far away from that and I’m not saying that is even the best idea…

Your input is valuable

Please file issues or pull-requests. Let’s see where we can take this!

decent durable defect density displayed

Here’s an encouraging graph from our regular Coverity scans of the curl source code, showing that we’ve maintained a fairly low “defect density” over the last two years, staying way below the average density level.
defect density over timeClick the image to view it slightly larger.

Defect density is simply the number of found problems per 1,000 lines of code. As a little (and probably unfair) comparison, right now when curl is flat on 0, Firefox is at 0.47, c-ares at 0.12 and libssh2 at 0.21.

Coverity is still the primary static code analyzer for C code that I’m aware of. None of the flaws Coverity picked up in curl during the last two years were detected by clang-analyzer for example.

A thousand curl forks

a fork

The curl repository on github has now been forked 1,000 times. Or actually, there are 1,000 forks kept alive as the counter is actually decreased when people remove their forks again. curl has had its primary git repository on github since March 22, 2010. A little more than two days between every newly created fork.

1000-forks

If you’re not used to the github model: a fork is typically made to get yourself your own copy of someone’s source tree so that you can make changes to that and publish your own version of the source tree without having to get the changes you’ve done merged into the original repository that you forked off from. But it is also the most common way to offer changes back to github based projects:  send a request that a particular change in your version of the source tree should get merged into the mother project. A so called Pull Request.

Trivia: The term “fork” when meaning “to divide in branches, go separate ways” has been used in the English language since the 14th century.

I’m only aware of one actual separate line of development that is a true fork of libcurl that I believe is still being maintained: libgnurl.