Archive for the ‘cURL and libcurl’ Category

curl and proxy headers

Friday, April 4th, 2014

Starting in the next curl release, 7.37.0, the curl tool supports the new command line option –proxy-header. (Completely merged at this commit.)

It works exactly like –header does, but will only include the headers in requests sent to a proxy, while the opposite is true for –header: that will only be sent in requests that will go to the end server. But of course, if you use a HTTP proxy and do a normal GET for example, curl will include headers for both the proxy and the server in the request. The bigger difference is when using CONNECT to a proxy, which then only will use proxy headers.

libcurl

For libcurl, the story is slightly different and more complicated since we’re having things backwards compatible there. The new libcurl still works exactly like the former one by default.

CURLOPT_PROXYHEADER is the new option that is the new proxy header option that should be set up exactly like CURLOPT_HTTPHEADER is

CURLOPT_HEADEROPT is then what an application uses to set how libcurl should use the two header options. Again, by default libcurl will keep working like before and use the CURLOPT_HTTPHEADER list in all HTTP requests. To change that behavior and use the new functionality instead, set CURLOPT_HEADEROPT to CURLHEADER_SEPARATE.

Then, the header lists will be handled as separate. An application can then switch back to the old behavior with a unified header list by using CURLOPT_HEADEROPT set to CURLHEADER_UNIFIED.

Presentation: what is http2

Wednesday, April 2nd, 2014

We had the 14th meetup with foss-sthlm yesterday and I talked about http2 for the almost 100 attendees in the audience. See my slides at slideshare:

Http2 from Daniel Stenberg

curl and the road to IPv6

Friday, March 28th, 2014

I’d like to comment Paul Saab’s presentation from the other day at the World IPv6 Congress titled “The Road To IPv6 – Bumpy“. Paul works for Facebook and in his talk he apparently mentioned curl (slide 24 of the PDF set).

Lots of my friends have since directed my attention to those slides and asked for my comment. I haven’t seen Paul’s actual presentation, only read the slides, but I have had a shorter twitter conversation with him about what he meant with his words.

The slide in question says exactly this:

Curl

  • Very hostile to the format of the IPv6 address
  • Wants everything bracket enclosed
  • Many IPv6 bugs that only recently were fixed

Let’s see what those mean. Very hostile to the format of the IPv6 address and Wants everything bracket enclosed are basically the same thing.

Paul makes a big point about the fact that if you want to write a URL with an IP address instead of a host name, you have to put that IP address within [brackets] when the IP address is an IPv6 one, which you don’t do if it is an IPv4 one.

Right. Sure. You do. That’s certainly an obstacle when converting slightly naive applications from IPv4 to IPv6 environments. This syntax is mandated by RFCs and standards (RFC3986 to be exact). curl follows the standards and you’ll do it the same way in other tools and clients that use URLs. The problem manifests itself if you use curl for your task, but if you’d use something else instead that something else would have the same issue if it follows the standards. The reason for the brackets requirements is of course that IPv6 numerical addresses contain colons and colons already have a reserved meaning in the host part of URLs so they had to come up with some way to handle that.

Then finally, Many IPv6 bugs that only recently were fixed he said.

I’m the main developer and maintainer of the curl project. This is news to me. Sure we always fix bugs and we always find stupid things we fix so there’s no doubt about that we’ve had IPv6 related bugs that we’ve fixed – and that we still have IPv6 related bugs we haven’t yet found – but saying that we fixed many such bugs recently? That isn’t something I’m aware of. My guess is that he’s talking about hiccups we’ve had after introducing happy eyeballs, a change we introduced in release 7.34.0 in December 2013.

curl has had IPv6 support since January 2001. We’re on that bumpy road to IPv6!

Reducing the Public Suffix pain?

Monday, March 24th, 2014

Let me introduce you to what I consider one of the worst hacks we have in current and modern internet protocols: the Public Suffix List (PSL). This is a list (maintained by Mozilla) with domains that have some kind administrative setup or arrangement that makes sub-domains independent. For example, you can’t be allowed to set cookies for “*.com” because .com is a TLD that has independent domains. But the same thing goes for “*.co.uk” and there’s no hint anywhere about this – except for the Public Suffix List. Then, take that simple little example and extrapolate to a domain system that grows with several new TLDs every month and more. The PSL is now several thousands of entries long.

And cookies isn’t the only thing this is used for. Another really common and perhaps even more important use case is for wildcard matches in TLS server certificates. You should not be allowed to buy and use a cert for “*.co.uk” but you can for “*.yourcompany.co.uk”…

Not really official but still…

If you read the cookie RFC or the spec for how to do TLS wildcard certificate matching you won’t read any line putting it crystal clear that the Suffix List is what you must use and I’m sure different browser solve this slightly differently but in practice and most unfortunately (if you ask me) you must either use the list or make your own to be fully compliant with how the web works 2014.

curl, wget and the PSL

In curl and libcurl, we have so far not taken the PSL into account which is by choice since I’ve not had any decent way to handle it and there are lots of embedded and other use cases that simply won’t be able to cope with that large PSL chunk.

Wget hasn’t had any PSL awareness either, but the recent weeks this has been brought up on the wget list and more attention has been given to this. Work has been initiated to do something about it, which has lead to…

libpsl

Tim Rühsen took the baton and started the libpsl project and its associated mailing list, as a foundation for something for Wget to use to get PSL awareness.

I’ve mostly cheered the effort so far and said that I wouldn’t mind building on this to enhance curl in the future if it just gets a suitable (liberal enough) license and it seems to go in that direction. For curl’s sake, I would like to get a conditional dependency on this so that people without particular size restrictions can use this, and people on more embedded and special-purpose situations can continue to build without PSL support.

If you’re interested in helping out in curl and libcurl in this area, feel most welcome!

dbound

Meanwhile, the IETF has set up a new mailing list called dbound for discussions around PSL and similar issues and it seems very timely!

what’s –next for curl

Wednesday, March 12th, 2014

curl is finally getting support for doing multiple independent requests specified in the same command line, which allows users to make even better use of curl’s excellent persistent connection handling and more. I don’t know when I first got the question of how to do a GET and a POST in a single command line with curl, but I do know that we’ve had the TODO item about adding such a feature mentioned since 2004 – and I know it wasn’t added there right away…

Starting in curl 7.36.0, we can respond with a better answer: use the –next option!

curl has been able to work with multiple URLs on the command line virtually since day 1, but all the command line options would then mostly apply and be used for all specified URLs.

This new –next option introduces a “boundary”, or a wall if you like, between options on the command line. The options set before –next will be handled as one request and the options set on the right side of –next will start adding up to another request. You of course then need to specify at least one URL per individual such section and you can add any number of –next on the command line. If the command line then gets too long, we also support the same logic and sequence in the “config files” which is the way you can specify command line arguments into a text file and have curl read them from there using -K or –config.

Here’s a somewhat silly example to illustrate. This fist makes a POST and then a HEAD to two different pages on the same host:

curl -d FOO example.com/input.cgi --next --head example.com/robots.txt

Thanks to Steve Holme for his hard work on implementing this!

http2 in curl

Sunday, March 9th, 2014

While the first traces of http2 support in curl was added already back in September 2013 it hasn’t been until recently it actually was made useful. There’s been a lot of http2 related activities in the curl team recently and in the late January 2014 we could run our first command line inter-op tests against public http2 (draft-09) servers on the Internet.

There’s a lot to be said about http2 for those not into its nitty gritty details, but I’ll focus on the curl side of this universe in this blog post. I’ll do separate posts and presentations on http2 “internals” later.

A quick http2 overview

http2 (without the minor version, as per what the IETF work group has decided on) is a binary protocol that allows many logical streams multiplexed over the same physical TCP connection, it features compressed headers in both directions and it has stream priorities and more. It is being designed to maintain the user concepts and paradigms from HTTP 1.1 so web sites don’t have to change contents and web authors won’t need to relearn a lot. The web will not break because of http2, it will just magically work a little better, a little smoother and a little faster.

In libcurl we build http2 support with the help of the excellent library called nghttp2, which takes care of all the binary protocol details for us. You’ll also have to build it with a new enough version of the SSL library of your choice, as http2 over TLS will require use of some fairly recent TLS extensions that not many older releases have and several TLS libraries still completely lack!

The need for an extension is because with speaking TLS over port 443 which HTTPS implies, the current and former web infrastructure assumes that we will speak HTTP 1.1 over that, while we now want to be able to instead say we want to talk http2. When Google introduced SPDY then pushed for a new extension called NPN to do this, which when taken through the standardization in IETF has been forked, changed and renamed to ALPN with roughly the same characteristics (I don’t know the specific internals so I’ll stick to how they appear from the outside).

So, NPN and especially ALPN are fairly recent TLS extensions so you need a modern enough SSL library to get that support. OpenSSL and NSS both support NPN and ALPN with a recent enough version, while GnuTLS only supports ALPN. You can build libcurl to use any of these threes libraries to get it to talk http2 over TLS.

http2 using libcurl

(This still describes what’s in curl’s git repository, the first release to have this level of http2 support is the upcoming 7.36.0 release.)

Users of libcurl who want to enable http2 support will only have to set CURLOPT_HTTP_VERSION to CURL_HTTP_VERSION_2_0 and that’s it. It will make libcurl try to use http2 for the HTTP requests you do with that handle.

For HTTP URLs, this will make libcurl send a normal HTTP 1.1 request with an offer to the server to upgrade the connection to version 2 instead. If it does, libcurl will continue using http2 in the clear on the connection and if it doesn’t, it’ll continue using HTTP 1.1 on it. This mode is what Firefox and Chrome will not support.

For HTTPS URLs, libcurl will use NPN and ALPN as explained above and offer to speak http2 and if the server supports it. there will be http2 sweetness from than point onwards. Or it selects HTTP 1.1 and then that’s what will be used. The latter is also what will be picked if the server doesn’t support ALPN and NPN.

Alt-Svc and ALTSVC are new things planned to show up in time for http2 draft-11 so we haven’t really thought through how to best support them and provide their features in the libcurl API. Suggestions (and patches!) are of course welcome!

http2 with curl

Hardly surprising, the curl command line tool also has this power. You use the –http2 command line option to switch on the libcurl behavior as described above.

Translated into old-style

To reduce transition pains and problems and to work with the rest of the world to the highest possible degree, libcurl will (decompress and) translate received http2 headers into http 1.1 style headers so that applications and users will get a stream of headers that look very much the way you’re used to and it will produce an initial response line that says HTTP 2.0 blabla.

Building (lib)curl to support http2

See the README.http2 file in the lib/ directory.

This is still a draft version of http2!

I just want to make this perfectly clear: http2 is not out “for real” yet. We have tried our http2 support somewhat at the draft-09 level and Tatsuhiro has worked on the draft-10 support in nghttp2. I expect there to be at least one more draft, but perhaps even more, before http2 becomes an official RFC. We hope to be able to stay on the frontier of http2 and deliver support for the most recent draft going forward.

PS. If you try any of this and experience any sort of problems, please speak to us on the curl-library mailing list and help us smoothen out whatever problem you got!

cURL

HTTPbis design team meeting London

Saturday, March 8th, 2014

I’m writing this just hours after the HTTPbis design team meeting in London 2014 has ended.

Around 30 people attended the meeting i Mozilla’s central London office. The fridge was filled up with drinks, the shelves were full of snacks and goodies. The day could begin. This is the Saturday after the IETF89 week so most people attending had already spent the whole or parts of the week before here in London doing other HTTP and network related work. The HTTPbis sessions at the IETF itself were productive and had already pushed us forward.

We started at 9:30 and we quickly got to work. Mark Nottingham guided us through the day with usual efficiency.

We all basically hang out in a huge room, some in chairs, some in sofas and a bunch of people on the floor or just standing up. We had mikes passed around and the http2 discussions were flowing back and forth depending on the topics and what people felt about them. Some of the issues that were nailed down this time and will end up detailed in the upcoming draft-11 are (strictly speaking, we only discussed the things and formed opinions, as by IETF guidelines we can’t decide things on an offline meeting like this):

  • Priorities of streams will have a dependency graph or direction, making individual  streams less or more important than other
  • A client can send headers without compression and tell the proxy that the header shouldn’t be compressed – used a way to mitigate some of the compression security problems
  • There will be no TLS renegotiation allowed mid-session. Basically a client will have to tear down the connection and negotiate again if suddenly a need to use a client certificate arises.
  • Alt-Svc is the way forward so ALTSVC will appear a new frame in draft-11. This is the way to signal to an application that there is another “route” tIMG_20140308_100453o the same content on the same server. This will allow for what is popularly known as “opportunistic encryption” or at least one sort of that. In short, you can do “plain-text” HTTP over a TLS connection using this…
  • We decided that a server should support gzip contents from clients

There were some other things too handled, but I believe those are the main changes. When the afternoon started to turn long, beers and other beverages were brought out and we did enjoy a relaxing social finale of the day before we split up in smaller groups and headed out in the busy London night to get dinner…

Thanks everyone for a great day. I also appreciated meeting several people in real-life I never met before, only discussed with and read emails from online and of course some old friends I hadn’t seen in a long time!

Oh, there’s also a new rough time frame for http2 going forward. Nearest in time would be the draft-11 at the end of March and another interim in the beginning of June (Boston?).

As a reminder, here’s what was happened for draft-10, and here is http2 draft-10.

Out of all people present today, I believe Mozilla was the company with the largest team (8 attendees) – funnily enough none of us Mozillians there actually work in this office or even in this country.

My FOSDEM 2014

Monday, February 3rd, 2014

I’m back home after FOSDEM 2014.Lots of coffee A big THANK YOU from me to the organizers of this fine and totally free happening.

Europe’s (the World’s?) biggest open source conference felt even bigger and more crowded this year. There seemed to be more talks that got full, longer lines for food and a worse parking situation.

Nothing of that caused any major concern for me though. I had a great weekend and I met up with a whole busload of friends from all over. Many of them I only meet at FOSDEM. This year I had some additional bonuses by for example meeting up with long-term committers Steve and Dan from the curl project whom I had never met before IRL. Old buddies from Haxx and Rockbox are kind of default! :-)

Talk-wise this year was also extra good. I’ve always had a soft spot for the Embedded room but this year there was fierce competition for my attention so I spread my time among many rooms and got to see stuff about: clang the compiler, lots of really cool stuff on GDB, valgrind and helgrind, power efficient software, using the GPU to accelerate libreoffice, car automation and open source, how to run Android on low-memory devices, Firefox on Android and more.

I missed out the kdbus talks since it took place in one of them smaller devrooms even though it was “celebrity warning” all over it with Lennart Poettering. In general there’s sometimes this problem at FOSDEM that devrooms have very varying degrees of popularity on the different talks so the size of the room may be too large or too small depending on the separate topics and speakers. But yeah, I understand it is a very hard problem to improve for the organizers.

As a newbie Firefox developer at Mozilla I find it fun to first hear the Firefox on Android talk for an overview on how things  run on that platform now and then I also got references to Firefox both in the helgrind talk and the low-memory Android talk. In both negative and positive senses.

As always on FOSDEM some talks are not super good and we get unprepared speakers who talk quietly, monotone and uninspired but then there’s the awesome people that in spite of accents and the problem of speaking in English as your non-native language, can deliver inspiring and enticing talks that make me just want to immediately run home and try out new things.

The picture on the right is a small tribute to the drinks we could consume to get our spirits up during a talk we perhaps didn’t find the most interesting…

This year I found the helgrind and the gdb-valgrind talks to be especially good together with Meeks’ talk on using the GPU for libreoffice. We generally found that the wifi setup was better than ever before and worked basically all the time.

Accordingly, there were 8333 unique MAC addresses used on the network through the two days, which we then can use to guesstimate the number of attendees. Quite possibly upwards 6000…

See you at FOSDEM 2015. I think I’ll set myself up to talk about something then. I didn’t do any this year.

My first Mozilla week

Friday, January 17th, 2014

Working from home

I get up in the morning, shave, eat breakfast and make sure all family members get off as they should. Most days I walk my son to school (some 800 meters) and then back again. When they’re all gone, the house is quiet and then me and my cup of coffee go upstairs and my work day begins.

Systems and accounts

I have spent time this week to setup accounts and sign up for various lists and services. Created profiles, uploaded pictures, confirmed passwords. I’ve submitted stuff and I’ve signed things. There’s quite a lot of systems in use.

My colleagues

I’ve met a few. The Necko team isn’t very big but the entire company is huge and there are just so many people and names. I haven’t yet had any pressing reason to meet a lot of people nor learn a lot of names. I feel like I’m starting out this really slowly and gradually.

Code base

Firefox is a large chunk of code. It takes some 20 minutes to rebuild on my 3.5GHz quad-core Core-i7 with SSD. I try to pull code and rebuild every morning now so that I can dogfood and live on the edge. I also have a bunch of local patches now, some of them which I want to have stewing in my own browser for a while so that I know they at least don’t have any major negative impact!

Figuring out the threading, XPCOM, the JavaScript stuff and everything is a massive task. I really cannot claim to have done more than just scratched the surface so far, but at least I am scratching and I’ve “etagged” the whole lot and I’ve spent some time reading and reviewing code. Attaching a gdb to a running Firefox and checking out behavior and how it looks has also helped.

Netwerk code size

“Netwerk” is the directory name of the source tree where most of the network code is located. It is actually not so ridiculously large as one could fear. Counting only C++ and header files, it sums up to about 220K lines of code. Of course not everything interesting is in this tree, but still. Not mindbogglingly large.

Video conferencing

I’ll admit I’ve not participated in this sort of large scale video conferences before this. Wiith Vidyo and all the different people and offices signed up at once – it is a quite impressive setup actually. My only annoyance so far is that I didn’t get the sound for Vidyo to work for me in Linux with my headphones. The other end could hear me but I couldn’t hear them! I had to defer to using Vidyo on a windows laptop instead.

Doing the video conferencing on a laptop instead of on my desktop machine has its advantages when I do them during the evenings when the rest of the family is at home since then I can move my machine somewhere and sit down somewhere where they won’t disturb me and I won’t disturb them.

Bugzilla

The bug tracker is really in the center for this project, or at least for how I view it and work with it right now. During my first week I’ve so far filed two bug reports and I’ve submitted a suggested patch for a third bug. One of my bugs (Bug 959100 – ParseChunkRemaining doesn’t detect chunk size overflow) has been reviewed fine and is now hopefully about to be committed.

I’ve requested commit access (#961018) as a “level 1″ and I’ve signed the committer’s agreement. Level 1 is entry level and only lets me push to the Try server but still, I fully accept that there’s a process to follow and I’m in no hurry. I’ll get to level 3 soon enough I’m sure.

Mercurial

What can I say. After having used it a bit this week without any particularly fancy operations, I prefer git so much more. Of course I’m also much more used to git, but I find that for a lot of the stuff where both have similar concepts I prefer to git way. Oh well, its just a tool. I’ll get around. Possibly I’ll try out the git mirror soon and see if that provides a more convenient environment for me.

curl

What impact did all this new protocol and network code stuff during my work days have on my curl activities?

I got inspired to fix both the chunked encoding parser and the cookie parser’s handling of max-age in libcurl.

What didn’t happen

I feel behind in the implementing-http2 department. I didn’t get my new work laptop yet.

Next weekDaniel's work place

More of the same, land more patches and figure out more code. Grab more smallish bugs others have filed and work on fixing them as more practice.

Also, there’s a HTTPbis meeting in Zürich on Wednesday to Friday that I won’t go to (I’ll spare you the explanation why) but I’ll try to participate remotely.

I go Mozilla

Friday, December 20th, 2013

Mozilla dinosaur head logo

In January 2014, I start working for Mozilla

I’ve worked in open source projects for some 20 years and I’ve maintained curl and libcurl for over 15 years. I’m an internet protocol geek at heart and Mozilla seems like a perfect place for me to continue to explore this interest of mine and combine it with real open source in its purest form.

I plan to use my experiences from all my years of protocol fiddling and making stuff work on different platforms against random server implementations into the networking team at Mozilla and work on improving Firefox and more.

I’m putting my current embedded Linux focus to the side and I plunge into a worldwide known company with worldwide known brands to do open source within the internet protocols I enjoy so much. I’ll be working out of my home, just outside Stockholm Sweden. Mozilla has no office in my country and I have no immediate plans of moving anywhere (with a family, kids and all established here).

I intend to bring my mindset on protocols and how to do things well into the Mozilla networking stack and world and I hope and expect that I will get inspiration and input from Mozilla and take that back and further improve curl over time. My agreement with Mozilla also gives me a perfect opportunity to increase my commitment to curl and curl development. I want to maintain and possibly increase my involvement in IETF and the httpbis work with http2 and related stuff. With one foot in Firefox and one in curl going forward, I think I may have a somewhat unique position and attitude toward especially HTTP.

I’ve not yet met another Swedish Mozillian but I know I’m not the only one located in Sweden. I guess I now have a reason to look them up and say hello when suitable.

Björn and Linus will continue to drive and run Haxx with me taking a step back into the shadows (Haxx-wise). I’ll still be part of the collective Haxx just as I was for many years before I started working full-time for Haxx in 2009. My email address, my sites etc will remain on haxx.se.

I’m looking forward to 2014!