Tag Archives: Microsoft


It is often said that Imitation is the Sincerest Form of Flattery.

Also, remember libcrurl? That was the name of the thing Google once planned to do: reimplement the libcurl API on top of their Chrome networking library. Flattery or not, it never went anywhere.

The other day I received an email asking me about details regarding something called xCurl. Not having a clue what that was, a quick search soon had me enlightened.

xCurl is, using their own words, a Microsoft Game Development Kit (GDK) compliant implementation of the libCurl API.

A Frankencurl

The article I link to above describes how xCurl differs from libcurl:

xCurl differs from libCurl in that xCurl is implemented on top of WinHttp and automatically follows all the extra Microsoft Game Development Kit (GDK) requirements and best practices. While libCurl itself doesn’t meet the security requirements for the Microsoft Game Development Kit (GDK) console platform, use xCurl to maintain your same libCurl HTTP implementation across all platforms while changing only one header include and library linkage.

I don’t know anything about WinHttp, but since that is an HTTP API I can only presume that making libcurl use that instead of plain old sockets has to mean a pretty large surgery and code change. I also have no idea what the mentioned “security requirements” might be. I’m not very familiar with Windows internals nor with their game development setups.

The article then goes on to describe with some detail exactly which libcurl options that work, and which don’t and what libcurl build options that were used when xCurl was built. No DoH, no proxy support, no cookies etc.

The provided functionality is certainly a very stripped down and limited version of the libcurl API. A fun detail is that they quite bluntly just link to the libcurl API documentation to describe how xCurl works. It is easy and convenient of course, and it will certainly make xCurl “forced” to stick to the libcurl behavior

With large invasive changes of this kind we can certainly hope that the team making it has invested time and spent serious effort on additional testing, both before release and ongoing.

Source code?

I have not been able to figure out how to download xCurl in any form, and since I can’t find the source code I cannot really get a grip of exactly how much and how invasive Microsoft has patched this. They have not been in touch or communicated about this work of theirs to anyone in the curl project.

Therefore, I also cannot say which libcurl version this is based on – as there is no telling of that on the page describing xCurl.

The email that triggered me to crawl down this rabbit hole included a copyright file that seems to originate from an xCurl package, and that includes the curl license. The curl license file has the specific detail that it shows the copyright year range at the top and this file said

Copyright (c) 1996 - 2020, Daniel Stenberg, daniel@haxx.se, and many contributors, see the THANKS file.

It might indicate that they use a libcurl from a few years back. Only might, because it is quite common among users of libcurl to “forget” (sometimes I’m sure on purpose) to update this copyright range even when they otherwise upgrade the source code. This makes the year range a rather weak evidence of the actual age of the libcurl code this is based on.


curl (including libcurl) ships a new version at least once every eight weeks. We merge bugfixes at a rate of around three bugfixes per day. Keeping a heavily modified libcurl version in sync with the latest curl releases is hard work.

Of course, since they deliberately limit the scope of the functionality of their clone, lots of upstream changes in curl will not affect xCurl users.


curl is licensed under… the curl license! It is an MIT license that I was unclever enough to slightly modify many years ago. The changes are enough for organizations such as SPDX to consider it a separate one: curl. I normally still say that curl is MIT licensed because the changes are minuscule and do not change the spirit of the license.

The curl license of course allows Microsoft or anyone else do to this kind of stunt and they don’t even have to provide the source code for their changes or the final product and they don’t have to ask or tell anyone:

Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software for any purpose with or without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice and this permission notice appear in all copies.

I once picked this license for curl exactly because it allows this. Sure it might sometimes then make people do things in secret that they never contribute back, and we miss out on possible improvements because of that, but I think the more important property is that no company feels scared or restricted as to when and where they can use this code. A license designed for maximum adoption.

I have always had the belief that it is our relentless update scheme and never-ending flood of bugfixes that is what will keep users wanting to use the real thing and avoid maintaining long-running external patches. There will of course always be exceptions to that.


Forensics done by users who installed this indicate that this xCurl is based on libcurl 7.69..x. We removed a define from the headers in 7.70.0 (CURL_VERSION_ESNI) that this package still has. It also has the CURLOPT_MAIL_RCPT_ALLLOWFAILS define, added in 7.69.0.

curl 7.69.1 was released on March 11, 2020. It has 40 known vulnerabilities, and we have logged 3,566 bugfixes since then. Of course not all of any of those affect xCurl.

deleting system32\curl.exe

Let me tell you a story about how Windows users are deleting files from their installation and as a consequence end up in tears.


The real and actual curl tool has been shipped as part of Windows 10 and Windows 11 for many years already. It is called curl.exe and is located in the System32 directory.

Microsoft ships this bundled with its Operating system. They get the code from the curl project but Microsoft builds, tests, ships and are in all ways responsible for their operating system.

NVD inflation

As I have blogged about separately earlier, the next brick in the creation of this story is the fact that National Vulnerability Database deliberately inflates the severity levels of security flaws in its vast database. They believe scaremongering serves their audience.

In one particular case, CVE-2022-43552 was reported by the curl project in December 2022. It is a use-after-free flaw that we determined to be severity low and not higher mostly because of the very limited time window you need to make something happen for it to be exploited or abused. NVD set it to medium which admittedly was just one notch higher (this time).

This is not helpful.

“Security scanners”

Lots of Windows users everywhere runs security scanners on their systems with regular intervals in order to verify that their systems are fine. At some point after December 21, 2022, some of these scanners started to detect installations of curl that included the above mentioned CVE. Nessus apparently started this on February 23.

This is not helpful.


Lots of Windows users everywhere then started to panic when these security applications warned them about their vulnerable curl.exe. Many Windows users are even contractually “forced” to fix (all) such security warnings within a certain time period or risk bad consequences and penalties.

How do you fix this?

I have been asked numerous times about how to fix this problem. I have stressed at every opportunity that it is a horrible idea to remove the system curl or to replace it with another executable. It is very easy to download a fresh curl install for Windows from the curl site – but we still strongly discourage everyone from replacing system files.

But of course, far from everyone asked us. A seemingly large enough crowd has proceeded and done exactly what we would stress they should not: they deleted or replaced their C:\Windows\System32\curl.exe.

The real fix is of course to let Microsoft ship an update and make sure to update then. The exact update that upgrades curl to version 8.0.1 is called KB5025221 and shipped on April 11. (And yes, this is the first time you get the very latest curl release shipped in a Windows update)

The people who deleted or replaced the curl executable noticed that they cannot upgrade because the Windows update procedure detects that the Windows install has been tampered with and it refuses to continue.

I do not know how to restore this to a state that Windows update is happy with. Presumably if you bring back curl.exe to the exact state from before it could work, but I do not know exactly what tricks people have tested and ruled out.

Bad advice

I have been pointed to responses on the Microsoft site answers.microsoft.com done by “helpful volunteers” that specifically recommend removing the curl.exe executable as a fix.

This is not helpful.

I don’t want to help spreading that idea so I will not link to any such post. I have reported this to Microsoft contacts and I hope they can maybe edit or comment those posts soon.

We are not responsible

I just want to emphasize that if you install and run Windows, your friendly provider is Microsoft. You need to contact Microsoft for support and help with Windows related issues. The curl.exe you have in System32 is only provided indirectly by the curl project and we cannot fix this problem for you. We in fact fixed the problem in the source code already back in December 2022.

If you have removed curl.exe or otherwise tampered with your Windows installation, the curl project cannot help you.


Image by Alexa from Pixabay


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