internally, we’re all multi now!

Thursday, January 17th, 2013

libcurl internals suddenly become a lot cleaner and neater to work with when we made all code assume and work with the multi interface!

libcurl was initially created slightly after the birth of the curl tool. After the tool started to get some traction and use out in the world, requests and queries about a library with its powers started to drop in. Soon enough, in the year 2000 we shipped the first release of libcurl and it featured a synchronous API (the “easy” interface) that performs the complete operation and then returns. I think we can now say that the blocking easy interface was successful and its ease of use has been very popular and appreciated by many users.

During 2002 the need for a non-blocking API had been identified and we introduced the multi interface. The multi interface is kind of a super-set as it re-uses the same handles as is used with the easy interface, so it cleverly makes it fairly easy for a standard application to move from the easy interface to the multi.

Basically since that day, we’ve struggled in the source code structure to handle the fact that we have both a blocking and a non-blocking API. In lots of places we’ve had different code paths and choices done depending on which API that was used. It made the source code hard to follow and it occasionally introduced hard to track bugs which could lead to the multi and easy interface not behaving the same way to the underlying network or protocol behavior. It was clear very early on that it wasn’t an ideal design choice, but it was a design choice that was spread out among the code and it stuck.

During November 2012 I finally took on the code that we’ve had #ifdef’ed since around 2005 which makes the blocking easy interface operation a wrapper function around the non-blocking multi interface functions. Using this method, all internals should be considered non-blocking and there is no need left to treat things differently depending on which API that was used because everything is now multi interface == non-blocking.

On January 17th 2013 the big patch was committed. 400 added lines, 800 removed over 54 modified files…

cURL

Three static code analyzers compared

Thursday, July 12th, 2012

I’m a fan of static code analyzing. With the use of fancy scanner tools we can get detailed reports about source code mishaps and quite decently pinpoint what source code that is suspicious and may contain bugs. In the old days we used different lint versions but they were all annoying and very often just puked out far too many warnings and errors to be really useful.

Out of coincidence I ended up getting analyses done (by helpful volunteers) on the curl 7.26.0 source base with three different tools. An excellent opportunity for me to compare them all and to share the outcome and my insights of this with you, my friends. Perhaps I should add that the analyzed code base is 100% pure C89 compatible C code.

Some general observations

First out, each of the three tools detected several issues the other two didn’t spot. I would say this indicates that these tools still have a lot to improve and also that it actually is worth it to run multiple tools against the same source code for extra precaution.

Secondly, the libcurl source code has some known peculiarities that admittedly is hard for static analyzers to figure out and not alert with false positives. For example we have several macros that look like functions and on several platforms and build combinations they evaluate as nothing, which causes dead code to be generated. Another example is that we have several cases of vararg-style functions and these functions are documented to work in ways that the analyzers don’t always figure out (both clang-analyzer and Coverity show problems with these).

Thirdly, the same lesson we knew from the lint days is still true. Tools that generate too many false positives are really hard to work with since going through hundreds of issues that after analyses turn out to be nothing makes your eyes sore and your head hurt.

Fortify

The first report I got was done with Fortify. I had heard about this commercial tool before but I had never seen any results from a run but now I did. The report I got was a PDF containing 629 pages listing 1924 possible issues among the 130,000 lines of code in the project.

fortify-curl

Fortify claimed 843 possible buffer overflows. I quickly got bored trying to find even one that could lead to a problem. It turns out Fortify has a very short attention span and warns very easily on lots of places where a very quick glance by a human tells us there’s nothing to be worried about. Having hundreds and hundreds of these is really tedious and hard to work with.

If we’re kind we call them all false positives. But sometimes it is more than so, some of the alerts are plain bugs like when it warns on a buffer overflow on this line, warning that it may write beyond the buffer. All variables are ‘int’ and as we know sscanf() writes an integer to the passed in variable for each %d instance.

sscanf(ptr, "%d.%d.%d.%d", &int1, &int2, &int3, &int4);

I ended up finding and correcting two flaws detected with Fortify, both were cases where memory allocation failures weren’t handled properly.

LLVM, clang-analyzer

Given the exact same code base, clang-analyzer reported 62 potential issues. clang is an awesome and free tool. It really stands out in the way it clearly and very descriptive explains exactly how the code is executed and which code paths that are selected when it reaches the passage is thinks might be problematic.

clang-analyzer report - click for larger version

The reports from clang-analyzer are in HTML and there’s a single file for each issue and it generates a nice looking source code with embedded comments about which flow that was followed all the way down to the problem. A little snippet from a genuine issue in the curl code is shown in the screenshot I include above.

Coverity

Given the exact same code base, Coverity detected and reported 118 issues. In this case I got the report from a friend as a text file, which I’m sure is just one output version. Similar to Fortify, this is a proprietary tool.

coverity curl report - click for larger version

As you can see in the example screenshot, it does provide a rather fancy and descriptive analysis of the exact the code flow that leads to the problem it suggests exist in the code. The function referenced in this shot is a very large function with a state-machine featuring many states.

Out of the 118 issues, many of them were actually the same error but with different code paths leading to them. The report made me fix at least 4 accurate problems but they will probably silence over 20 warnings.

Coverity runs scans on open source code regularly, as I’ve mentioned before, including curl so I’ve appreciated their tool before as well.

Conclusion

From this test of a single source base, I rank them in this order:

  1. Coverity – very accurate reports and few false positives
  2. clang-analyzer – awesome reports, missed slightly too many issues and reported slightly too many false positives
  3. Fortify – the good parts drown in all those hundreds of false positives

Linux kernel code on TV

Tuesday, March 20th, 2012

In one of the fast-moving early scenes in episode 16 of Person of Interest at roughly 2:05 into the thing I caught this snapshot:

person of interest s01e16

(click the image to see a slightly bigger version)

It is only in sight for a fraction of a second. What is seen in the very narrow terminal screen on the right is source code scrolling by. Which source code you say? Take a look again. That my friends is kernel/groups.c from around line 30 in a recent Linux kernel. I bet that source file never had so many viewers before, although perhaps not that many actually appreciated this insight! ;-)

And before anyone asks: no, there’s absolutely no point or relevance in showing this source code in this section. It is just a way for the guys to look techy. And to be fair, in my mind kernel code is fairly techy!